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Flashcards in Spinal Anatomy Deck (144):
1

The ectoderm gives rise to what

all neurons and supporting cells

2

The notochord induces the ectoderm to do what

form the neuroectoderm (remnant IVD as "nucleus pulposus")

3

The ectoderm forms what

forms neural plate ("neuroectoderm")

4

The neural plate, which is formed by the ectoderm, forms neural groove which houses what

Spinal cord and Brain vesicles

5

What does the Neural Crest develop into? (good luck....11)

Brachial arches
Pns
Schwann cells, Pia and arachnoid meninges
Sacral parasympathetics
Spinal (sensory) and autonomic ganglia
Mesencephalic nucleus of V
Melanocytes
Bones and Connective tissue of head
DRG
Ganglia of CN V, VII, IX, X
Adrenal gland medulla (AKA suprarenal)

6

Neural plate (brain cells) develop into what
(MoaNER)

Macroglia
Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes
Neurons of CNS
Ependymal cells
Retinal cells

7

The Endoderm epithelium forms the lining of what

the digestive tube and its associates structures

8

The divisions foregut/midgut forms the what

Liver and pancreatic buds (Gem)

9

What are the component of the primitive gut

Foregut
midgut
hindgut
allantois

10

what are the components of the foregut (face and neck)?

glands buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, pharyngeal pouches and pharynx

11

What are the components of the midgut (mid section)?

Duodenum, jejunum, appendix, part of the transverse colon

12

what are the components of the hindgut (ass area)

part transverse, sigmoid and descending colon, rectum and upper anal canal

13

what are the components of the Allantois (PeePee area)

urinary bladder, vaina, urethra, prostate and urethral glands

14

What cells form the Sclerotome?

Somite cells

15

what does the Sclerotome differentiate into

vertebral column (cartilage and bone) and it also forms the Myotome (muscle) and the Dermatome (skin)

16

what are the cervical dermatomes

C1-none
C2-scalp
C3-nape of neck
C4-shoulder
C5-delt
C6-lateral forearm to thumb
C7- digits 2,3 and half of 4
C8- half of digit 4 and the medial forearm

17

What are the Thoracic dermatome levels (fill in missing)

T1-medial elbow
T2-axilla
T4-nipple
T7-xiphoid
T10-umbilicus
T12-superior to the inguinal ligament

18

what are the lumbar dermatomes

L1-inguinal ligament to the superior thigh
L2-middle thigh
L3-crosses knee
L4-medial nee to floor
L5-top of foot and side of leg

19

what are the sacral dermatomes

S1-bottom of foot, baby toe and calf
S2- posterior thigh
S3- Big ring around anus
S4-anus

20

The foramen ovale becomes what in adults

fossa ovalis

21

the Ductus arteriosus becomes what in adults

ligamentum arteriosum

22

the Ductus venosus becomes what in adults

ligamentum venosum

23

what does the umbilical vein become

the ligamentum teres (round ligament)

24

what does the umbilical arteries become

the medial umbilical ligaments

25

what does the urachus become

remnant of the duct of allantois

26

the fossa ovalis is between what

intraatrial septum

27

what does the ligamentum arteriosum bypass

lung pulmonary trunk to arch of aorta

28

what does the ligamentum venosum bypass

sinusoids of getal liver

29

Simple squamous cells help with filtration and diffusion and are found where

capillaries, alveoli, glomeruli

30

Cilliated pseudostratifies columnar cells are used in lining things and are found where

trachea and upper respiratory tract

31

ciliated epithelium tend to circulate, move sweep/clean areas of the body and are found where

brain vesicles, oviduct, lung

32

Non-ciliates pseudostratified columnar cells are used as membranes and can be found where

vas deferens

33

The mandibular branch of V (V3) is associated with what brachial arch, skeletal structures and muscles

Brachial arch 1
Skeletal- Malleus (meckel's cart.) and Incus (quadrate cart.)
Muscles of mastication and jaw-closing muscles

34

The facial nerve is associated with what brachial arch, skeletal structures and muscles

BA- 2
SS- stapes and styloid
M- of facial expression and jaw opening muscles (stylohyoid and stapedius)

35

the Glossopharyngeal nerve is associated with which brachial arch, skeletal structures and muscles

BA-3
SS- cornu, hyoid
M- stylopharyngeus

36

what brachial arch, skeletal structures and muscles are associated with the Superior laryngeal nerve of the vagus nerve

BA-4
SS- thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage
M- pharyngeal, cricothyroid and levator palatine

37

the inferior laryngeal of the vagus nerve is associated with what brachial arch, skeletal structures and Muscles

BA-6
SS- Arytenoid, Corniculate cartilage, Cuneiform cartilage
M- laryngeal

38

what is unique about the Stapedius muscle

it is the smallest muscle

39

what is unique about the Sartorius muscle

it is the longest muscle

40

Glioblasts are what

"glue," gives rise to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

41

Astrocytes are what

the most numerous cell of the CNS, they act like connective tissue, part of the BBB and forms "scar-like" tissue in injury

42

Oligodendrocytes are what

quite numerous (less than astrocytes) and form Myelin around CNS

43

Ependymal cells are ciliated and do what

Line the CNS and makes "leaky" barrier between CSF & CNS

44

Microglia are also known as

Gitterzellen cells

45

microglia are what in the brain

they are the phagocytes (macrophages) of the CNS
not many of them

46

Neuroblasts make what

Neurons

47

Internuncial neurons within the CNS are what

Connectors within the CNS

48

Internuncial commissural cells of the CNS are between what

two hemispheres

49

Internuncial Associated neurons in the CNS are between what

different parts of the same hemisphere

50

internuncial projection neurons are between what

LOWER centers to cerebral cortex

51

The CNS consists of what

Brain and Spinal cord

52

what is the MC cell type in the CNS

Multipolar cells

53

what type of matter is the CNS

Gray and White Matter
macroglia

54

what is the gray matter in the cns

cell bodies and dendrites

55

what is white matter in the cns

myelinated axons

56

Macroglia in the CNS is composed of what

Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes

57

Astrocytes are found in the BBB and help with what

active transport for glucose and filters

58

Oligodendrocytes do what

myelinate Axons in the CNS

59

Ductus arteriousus becomes what

ligamentum arteriosum

60

umbilical vein become what

ligamentum teres

61

the urachus is a remnant of what

duct of allantois

62

the umbilical arteries becomes what

medial umbilical

63

Ventricles are direct extensions of what

Spinal cord

64

the prosencephalon is a primary structure of the brain and differentiates into what two secondary structures

Telencephalon and diencephalon

65

the telencephalon contains what structures and is associated with which CN

Forebrain (higher structures)
CN I

66

the Diencephalon contains what structures and is associated with which CN(s)

Thalamus, hypothal, pineal gland, retina, mammillary bodies and posterior pit
CN II

67

the telencephalon is associates with which neural canal region

lateral ventricles separated by septum pellucidum

68

the diencephalon is associated with which neural canal regions

foramen of Monroe (aka inteerventric foramen) 1&2 to the 3rd ventricle

69

the mesencephalon will differentiate into what

it doesnt it stays the mesencephalon

70

what are the structures of the mesencephalon and is associated with which CN(s)

midbrain
NS III, IV

71

what is the neural canal regions of the mesencephalon

cerebral aqueduct of sylvius

72

the Rhombencephalon will differentiate into what secondary structures

Metencephalon and myelencephalon

73

the Rhombencephalon contains what structures of the brain and is associated with what CN(s)

Pons and Cerebellum & CNs V, VI, VII, VIII (Metencephalon)
Medulla Oblongata & CNs Ix, X, XI, XII (Myelencephalon)

74

What neural canal regions are associated with the Metencephalon and Myelencephalon of the Rhombencephalon

4th Ventricle

75

the circle of willis is full of Arterial what

Anastomosis

76

the circle of willis is a blood supply communication between what

forebrain and hindbrain

77

the circle of willis is anatomically around what

the pituitary gland and optic chiasm

78

What arteries supply the circle of willis

internal carotid and vertebral arteries

79

what arteries make up the circle of the circle of willis

Ant. and Post. cerebral and Ant. and Post. communicating

80

The Middle Cerebral artery is the MC place for what to occur

Cerebral vascular accident (CVA)

81

which artery of the circle of willis carries the most blood

middle cerebral artery

82

Anteromedial longitudinal artery trunk (AMLAT) is also known as what and how many branches does it send to the ventral aspect of the cord

Anterior spinal artery and sends 200 branches to the ventral aspect of the cord

83

Posterolateral longitudinal artery trunk (PLLAT) is also known as what and sends branches where to provide blood

posterior spinal artery and sends branches to provide blood to posterior roots of spinal cord

84

Cerebral cortex is also known as what and is developed from what

Pallium and developed from neural plate

85

The neocortex is what percent of the cerebral cortex

90% Also known as isocortex

86

what percent of the cerebral cortex is the Allocortex

10%

87

how many cerebral cortex laminae are there in the neocortex

6 (mostly synaptic activity)

88

the Diencephalon is mostly formed by what

thalamus

89

the diencephalon is mostly a relay for what and what does it do

the cortex and it processes sensory info, sleep, consciousness and motor relay

90

The basal ganglia is responsible for what

postural adjustments, steadying voluntary movements, enkephalins

91

Striatal lesions of the basal ganglia will cause what

tremors (Parkinson's, Huntington's chorea, ballism)

92

the Basal ganglia includes what three things

corpus striatum
amygdaloid nucleus
claustrum

93

the telencephalon nuclei include what

Caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and basal ganglia

94

the mesencephalon nuclei include what

substantia nigra
subthalamic nuclei

95

the corpus striatum (striate body) include what

head of the caudate and putamen

96

the lentiform nucleus includes what

Globus pallidus (medial) and Putamen (lateral)

97

what structures make up the brainstem

medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain

98

the brainstem is a conduit for what

ascending and descending tracts

99

the brainstem contains reflex centers for what

associated with respiration, CV and consciousness

100

what important nuclei are held within the brainstem

CN III-XII

101

list the meninges from the outside in

Pia, Arachnoid, Dura mater (PAD)

102

the epidural space is filled with what

fat and veins

103

the subarachnoid space is found where

between the arachnoid and pia

104

the ependymal cells are where

the innermost layer of the neural tube

105

what produces CSF

Choroid plexus

106

the arachnoid granulations reabsorb what

Cerebral spinal fluid

107

what is the approximate volume of CSF in the VENTRICLES

25ml

108

Atrophy or damage of the basal ganglia can produce what

chorea (quick movements)

109

Parkinsonism is due to neuronal what

neuronal degeneration of the substantia nigra (Lewy Bodies)

110

how many pairs of Spinal nerves are there

31

111

What does Bell-Magendi's law state

Dorsal roots-sensory (afferent fibers)
Ventral roots-motor (Efferent fibers)

112

the spinal cord terminates where

at L1/L2
MC L1

113

what is the end of the spinal cord called

conus medullaris

114

what is the term used for the spinal cord when the roots of the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves run down through the lumbar cistern

Cauda equina (horses tail)

115

where is the roof of the tectum and the peduncles

the midbrain

116

the cerebral aqueduct of sylvius does what

exchanges CSF exchange between the 3rd and 4th ventricle

117

the cerebral peduncles contains what structures

tegmentum, substancia nigra, crus cerebri and CN III & IV

118

the substantia nigra is a black color in the midbrain and produces what

dopamine from tyrosine and melanin (causes black color) is a byproduct

119

Crus Cerebri is part of what

Cerebral peduncle

120

the Crus Cerebri contains what fibers

corticospinal
corticopontine
corticobulbar
and corticomesencephalic

121

What is the function of the cerebellum

integration of "Momentary" static muscle contraction, joint tension, visual and auditory input regarding equilibrium

122

where is the Vermis of the cerebellum

medial

123

where is the paleocerebellum and what does it do

Anterior, General muscle tone

124

where is the Neocerebellum and what does it do

Posterior
Coordinate skilled movements

125

what is the function of the Archicerebellum (flocculonodular)

Equilibrium

126

what is the AKA for the white matter of the cerebellum

corpus medullare

127

What is in the white matter of the of the cerebellum

afferent, efferent, commissural and association fibers

128

What are the gray matter neuron cell types of the cerebellum

PURKINJE (big one)
Golgi II, stellate, basket, granular

129

what is the blood supply to there cerebellum

branches of vertebral and basilar arteries

130

what are the cerebellar nuclei (Medial to lateral)
(Flowers Grow Every Day)

Fastigial
Globus
Emboliform
Dentate

131

where is deiters's nuclei

lateral vestibular

132

Meynert's nuclei is in the forebrain and has what neurotransmitter

ACH

133

Raphe nuclei is found where and has what chemical

MO and serotonin

134

Lenticular nuclei is part of what

corpus striatum

135

What is the function of the Thalamus

crude sensation and integrations

136

What is the thalamus known as?

Relay center

137

what is the function of the cortex

conscious interpretation and movement

138

What is the Main pathway between the thalamus and the cotex

through internal capsule and the corona radiata

139

The PostCentral gyrus is the primary what

sensory cotex

140

the PreCentral gyrus is primarily what

motor cortex

141

What happens with an Upper Motor Neuron Lesion

Increase in (Path Reflexes, muscle tone, spasticity, hypertrophy, clonus and DTR)
Decrease in Superficial reflexes (Bilateral)

142

An increase in in Path reflexes due to an UMNL is known as what sign

Babinski sign

143

What is seen in a Lower Motor Neuron Lesion

No Path Reflexes
Decrease in (Muscle tone, DTR and superficial reflexes (unilateral))
flaccidity, atrophy and fasciculations

144

what does clonus mean

after a stimulus is removed there is still contraction