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Flashcards in spinal cord Deck (27):
1

what is a reflex

fast, automatic unplanned sequence of actions that occur in response to a stimulus

2

what makes up a reflex arc

sensory receptor
sensory neuron
integrating centre (interneuron)
motor neuron
effector organ

3

a missing knee jerk reflex can indicate

an intervertebral disc prolapse
paralysis

4

a missing achilles reflex can indicate

nerve damage or subarachnoid haemorrhage

5

describe achilles reflex

tapping achilles tendon triggers stretch reflex to stimulate plantar flexion of the foot

6

describe plantar reflex/babinski sign

stroking outer margin of the sole causes big toe to dorsiflex and other toes to fan - normal in children under 1/.5 ONLY

7

positive plantar reflex/babinski sign in adult could indicate

ALS
MS

8

describe abdominal reflex

contraction of abdominal muscles in response to stroking sides of abdomen

9

Erb's palsy also known as

Waiters tip

10

which nerves Erb's palsy

brachial plexus - c5/6

11

klumpke's palsy known as

claw hand

12

which nerve klumpke's palsy

ulnar nerve damage- in brachial plexus

13

which nerve damaged ape hand

median nerve damage in brachial plexus

14

wrist drop also known as

saturday night palsy - falls asleep with back or arms compressed against bar edge

15

which serve damaged wrist drop

radial nerve in brachial plexus

16

what happens with a herniated/prolapsed disc

herniation/prolapsed intervertebral disc causing pressure on spinal nerve root or spinal cord

17

symptoms herniated disc

pain at location radiating unilaterally,
positive lasegue test
shooting pain on sneezing

18

differential diagnosis herniated disc

MS
spinal tumour
Lyme disease

19

lasegue test also known as straight leg raising test
describe

patient lies prone
knee extended, hip flexed, ankle dorsiflexed
pain? lower lumbosacral nerve roots inflamed

20

which is longest widest nerve in human body

sciatic nerve

21

symptoms sciatica

lower back pain
leg, buttock pain
one sided
pins needles/tingling/burning
difficulty moving, controlling leg

22

pathophysiology sciatica

general compression/irritation of 1 of the 5 nerve roots or of sciatic nerve itself

23

causes sciatica

tumours in pelvis
constipation
pregnancy
cold
injury

24

tests for sciatica

lasegue test
patient cannot stand on toes or heels?

25

how can spina bifida be prevented

Folic acid during pregnancy

26

very fair hair, eczema
mousy odour of urine and skin
progressive cognitive impairment
if untreated brain damage/mental retardation within months

phenylketonuria

27

cause phenylketonuria

genetic defect - enzyme deficiency