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Flashcards in Spinal cord Path Deck (31):
1

Treponema pallidum

causes syphilis

2

untreated syphilis

Tabes Dorsalis

3

primary syphilis presents as

painless ulcer known as chancre; common among men with other men sex partners

4

secondary syphilis

lesions on skin and mucous membranes (pic of hand and tongue lesions

5

Latent/tertiary syphilis

Neurosyphilis

6

Neurosyphilis includes

meningovascular syphilis; Tabes Dorsalis; syphilitic paresis

7

Meningovasular syphilis

onset is 5-10 yrs after primary infection; Chronic meningeal involvement causes arteritis; May cause aseptic meningitis

8

Symphilitic Paresis

Depression is primary symptom; Progressive loss of memory and higher cognitive functions; frontal lobe often involved--> changes in personality; Grandiose delusions; Diffuse UMN type weakness

9

Tabes Dorsalis

Often seen with symphilitic paresis; occurs more frequently in males with peak onset in 40s-50s; demyelination often occurs in lumbosacral region; pts have sensory ataxia; high stepping gait; incontinence; charcot joints; Argyll Robertsons pupils

10

Charcot joints Stage I

AKA Neuropathic Arthropathy; Stage I: Destruction of joint and surrounding bone; bone becomes unstable and reabsorbed. Severe deformity of foot/ankle; bony prominences develop on plantar surface of foot.

11

Charcot jts Stage II

Decreased destructive process and healing process begins

12

Charcot jts Stage III

reconstruction of bones but foot often deformed.

13

Argyll Robertson's Pupils

"Prostitutes pupils"; Bilateral small pupils; pupils constrict poorly/not at all to light; Do constrict for accommodation reflex

14

Tabes Dorsalis: CS+S

weakness; Diminished reflexes; unsteady gait; progressive degeneration of jts; loss of coordination; episodes of intense P! /disturbed sensation; personality changes/dementia; deafness; visual impairment and impaired response to light; loss of tactile discriminations and position sense (kinesthesia); Positive Romberg's sign

15

Posterior cord syndrome

injury to posterior column/occlusion to PSA; Isolated loss of proprioception and vibratory sense

16

Brown Sequard syndrome

ipsilateral: loss of proprioceptive function at and below lesion (DCML), UMNL signs below lesion, LMNL at lesion; ipsilateral loss of sweating; ipsilateral hemidiaphramatic paralysis

17

what commonly precedes Guillain-Barre syndrome

correlates with respiratory/viral infection

18

GBS

demyelination of axons in the PNS; very rapid progression; begins in LE and ascends bilaterally. knee jerk reflex is lost; decreased nerve conduction velocity

19

MS

demyelination/ breakdown of myelin in CNS; young adults; periventricular/juxtacortical lesions; CS&S: vision probs, muscle spasms/weak/stiff; balance probs; incontinence; vertigo; FATIGUE; mood; difficulty w/ goal oriented activities

20

Syringomyelia

Development of fluid filled cysts or syrinx w/in SC, symptoms develop slowly over time. Causes loss of AWC--> damage to decussating STT fibers

21

syringomyelia believed cause

obstructed flow--> CSF pressure causes it to push out syrinx and into SC--> cyst growth and damage to SC tissue

22

syringomyelia usual lesion location

lower cervical levels/first few thoracic

23

Syringomyelia CS+S

bilateral loss of sensititvty to pain and temp in the neck shoulder arms and hands due to the cysts pressing on the AWC resulting in damage to the decussating STT fibers. Later- cysts will press on neurons in the ventral horn resulting in the bilateral LMN signs, including bilateral muscle weakness and m atrophy generally confined to the UE

24

central cord syndrome

shawl like loss of pain & temp in UE; paralysis or loss of fine motor to arms/hands; loss of bladder control; usually result of trauma injury to vertebra/herniation of disc/individuals over 50 w/ weak disc

25

Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome

Can affect any segment of SC, lower thoracic /conus medullaris most commonly involved; abrupt onset; most often associated w/ radicular p!

26

ASA syndromE CS+S

bilateral loss of motor function; impaired bladder/bowel control; bi lat loss of p! and temp below level of lesion; rapidly progressive LMNLsigns; (PRESERVATION OF DCML BILAT); bi lat anhidrosis caudal to lesion +hemidiaphramatic paralysis

27

transverse cord lesion

complete severing of SC; loss of all motor and sensory at and below level of lesion; flaccid paralysis, areflexia, and anesthesia @ and below lesion; return of reflexes at 4-6 weeks post; injury at T6 or higher , AD often occurs w/ return of reflexes (^ BP, sweating,headache, flushed face, dec HR,

28

Cauda equina syndrome

unilateral, gradual progression of symptoms caused by herniated disc compressing cauda equina below level of conus medullaris. PN injury common in levels L2-sacrum. CS+S commonly P! in thigh/perineum area; unilateral saddle anesthesia; asymmetric paraplegia; atrophy of muscles (LMN sign)

29

Conus Medullaris syndrome

presents w symptoms similar to CES, but suddenly and bilaterally. loss of sensory to perianal area; paresis w fasciculations to LE; bilateral saddle anesthesia; loss of anal reflex; common in L1-L2

30

ALS

impairs m movements and eventually results in total paralysis of patient; progressive degeneration of both UMN and LMN; age of onset 50-60; proteins normally w/in nucleus are found outside in cell body, form clumps

31

ALS CS+S

focal weakness/clumsiness that spreads to adjacent m groups; m cramps; fasciculations; dysarthria/dysphagia; hyperreflexia/spasticity; head droop; pseudobulbar effect;