Flashcards in Spirits Deck (270):
A dry flavored spirit whose main flavor component is wormwood. It tastes similar to the licorice-like flavors of anise.
Abbreviation for "alcohol by volume." The percent of a liquid composed of alcohol, primarily ethanol.
A plant native to the dry climates of Mexico, Southwestern U.S. states, and Central America, and often mistaken for a cactus. The blue agave variety, known as "agave tequila Weber azul," is used to make tequila.
The juice that forms inside the agave plant.
A falvored spirt from scandanavia that features the distinctive caraway along with other herbs.
"Fruit brandy" made from apples.
Latin for “water of life.”
A grape spirit/brandy made in the Armagnac region of France.
A column still used to make Armagnac.
The "tails" of the distillate from a prior distillation used in bourbon production, added to each new batch of wash before it begins the first distillation. It contains little alcohol but has acids and congeners that add flavor and consistency to to each brand.
A grape that is hybrid of Folle Blanche and an American grape called Noah. It is used along with Ungi Blanc to make to make Armagnac.
Pomace-based spirit made in Portugal and spelling.
Fibers from the cooked piñas that may be added to a tequila fermentation vessel to add complexity
A distilling process that requires distillers to run the process once, remove the distillate, clean the still, and then start over with the distillate, distilling it until they reach their desired purity level.
The first still used for making whiskey.
Flavored spirits similar to cordials but do not usually include sweetening agents.
blended grain Scotch
Scotch whiskey blends of single grain scotch whiskies from more than one distillery.
blended Irish Whiskey
Irish whiskey that contains a blend of two ore more distillates.
blended malt Scotch
Scotch whiskey that contains two or more single malt whiskies from different distilleries.
Scotch whiskey that are blends of malt and grain whiskies.
blended whiskey (American)
blend of straight whiskey, other whiskey, and neutral spirits
must include at least 20 percent of straight whiskey on "a proof gallon basis."
aged four years in charred oak barrels
bottled at 100 proof.
From a single distillery
Vintage: produced in one season.
No coloring or additives are allowed.
Whiskey made in America
51 percent corn plus other grains
distilled up to 160 proof
stored at up to 125 proof in charred new oak.
A spirit made from fermented and distilled grape juice--basically a distilled wine.
Distillate from thethe first distillation in Cognac production. It's a low-alcohol spirit of about 30 percent ABV.
Barrels used for aging sherry in Spain’s sherry producing region of Jerez.
A rum-like spirit made from sugar cane and corn in Brazil.
An apple brandy (some also include pears) produced in France’s Normandy region.
A classification for Calvados that is column distilled and must contain 30 percent pear wine.
Calvados Pays d’Auge
A classification for Calvados that is double distilled in Cognac’s Charentais pot stills.
made in Canada
grains that include some malt or malt enzymes.
aged three years in “small wood,”
"possess the aroma, taste and character generally attributed to Canadian whisky.
Charentais pot still
A type of pot still used in Cognac. Also referred to as a "Cognac Still."
A still developed by Irishman Aeneas Coffey in 1830. An improved version of another still patented by Scotsman Robert Stein in 1827, it consists of two vertically positioned, column-shaped tanks—one called the analyzer and the other called the rectifier.
A grape spirit/brandy, made in the Cognac region of France.
A grape used in some Cognac and Armagnac, but less common than Ugni Blanc and Bacco 22A (Armagnac only).
Gin is gin made by adding juniper and other botanicals to a neutral spirit. Compare to distilled gin.
Adding a flavor to a spirit by dirctly mixing in an extract or other flavor component, rather than distilling the spirit with the flavor component.
Various chemical compounds that develop during fermentation and distillation, some of which add flavor and character to the final product.
A process that allows distillers to continually add the wash, which is processed through various tanks or “columns” to produce a very pure product that does not need additional processing. Also called "fractional distillation.
Spirits mixed with botanicals or other flavoring agents, as well as a sweeteners and sometimes coloring.
corn whiskey (American)
American whiskey made with 80 percent corn plus other grains, with oak aging in new or used containers optional.
The points at which distillers decide to cut the "heads," "hearts," and "tails."
A rum made with sugar cane juice rather than molasses produced in Guyana.
The alcoholic liquid resulting from distilation.
A process that separates various components of a liquid mixture using heat.
Gin that is distilled with juniper and other botantials. Compare to "compound gin"
The final result of grain fermentations. This wash, or "distiller's beer" is much like regular beer, but it usually does not have hops--the flowers from the hop plant that are added to the mash to add flavor for regular beer.
The the residue or “tails” from prior distillations for rum (similar to the sour mash in bourbon making). It contains dead yeast or “lees” and other flavorful congeners.
French for "water of life."
eau-de-vie de cidre
A basic fermented and distilled apple cider in France's Normandy region.
Congeners that add desirable fruity flavors and aromas.
The main component and most desirable alcohol found in wine, beer, and spirits.
Scotch that is aged in more than one type of barrel, including new oak, second-use port barrels, Bordeaux wine barriques, and others.
A grape used in some Cognac and Armagnac, but less common than Ugni blanc and Bacco 22A (Armagnac only).
continuous distillation -- any distillations occur in same process.
Fruit brandy made from rasberries.
A spirit made from fruits other than grapes.
Alcohol congeners created during fermentation and released during distillation as part of the "tails."
A blend of a pot-distilled spirit produced from a mash of malted barley and other grains and a neutral spirit infused with botanicals that includes juniper.
A spirit produced by addition of juniper and other botanicals to a neutral spirit to make a “compound gin” or through the distillation of spirit along with juniper and other botanical flavorings to make a “distilled gin.”
Pomace-based spirit made in Italy. See "pomace."
The barly that has germinated and is ready to be browned in a kiln for malting.
A course flour consisting of ground grains that are used to make a mash in whiskey and beer production.
The first vapors to emerge when boiling the wash in spirit production. They contain a higher concentration of components that boil at a lower temperature, which includes the less-desirable alcohols, such as methanol.
Collected after the heads are collected when boiling the wash in spirit production. The contain the steam with the highest concentration of the most desirable alcohols and congeners, such as the esters that add floral and fruity notes to the mix.
Distillate resulting from second distillation or distillation of "low wines" in whiskey production.
Brick ovens in which piña are cooked to release sugary juice that can be fermented and distilled into tequila and mezcal.
A process of extracting flavoring agents into a spirit by simply steeping the flavor source in the spirit or water.
Mexican farmers that harvest agave plants used for tequila and mezcal production.
kirsch or kirschwasser
Fruit brandy made from cherries.
The dead yeast deposits remaining from fermentation that may be mixed with wine during aging or used during distillation (as in Cognac) to add yeasty, bready flavor and complexity to the final product.
light whisky, American
-aged in used or uncharred oak containers;
-distilled to more than 160 proof
-When blended And contains less than 20 percent of a straight whiskey, it must be labeled "blended light whiskey"
-No color or additives.
same as a cordial: flavored and sweetened spirit.
London Dry Gin
A light and fresh style that may be made anywhere in the world and is well suited for mixing cocktails. The term "dry," on the label simply indicates the absence of sweetness.
The distillate that results from the first round of "batch distillation" for whiskey production, which is usually around 25 percent "ABV."
Crushing flavor components to extract flavors that are added to or distilled with spirits in the production of cordials and gin. In wine production is describes the process of crushing grapes and soaking to extacting color and flavor components in the skin.
The final product of malting.
malt whisky, American
Whiskey made in America with 51 percent barley plus other grains that is distilled up to 160 proof (80 percent ABV) and stored at up to 125 proof (65.5% ABV) in charred new oak containers. Producers may not add coloring or additives.
Scotch made with 100 percent malted barley from a single distillery.
A process designed to release enzymes from barely necessary to convert starches in the grain to sugars, which can then be fermented and distilled into grain-based spirits.
A person who processes ungerminated barely into germinated and kiln-dried malt for use in making whiskey.
A pomace-based spirit made in France.
A methold for making cognac that requires quick removal of less from wine before distillation to make a faster maturing, lighter spirit.
A mixture of course flower from ground grains (grist) to which enzymes or malt is added to convert starches to sugars, producing the sugarry liquid (wash) that can be fermented and then distilled into spirits.
A mixture of grains—barley (malted and unmalted), corn, wheat, and rye—which U.S. producers combine to make a grist.
The vessel in which the mash is heated to release sugars necessary for fermentation.
Made by fermenting the juice known as aguameil of the agave plant, formerly called mezcal wine. It is a early version of tequila; however, "tequila" may only be made within designated aeras of Mexico using the blue agave species.
Grinding germinated and browned barely into a course flour to make the grist for whiskey production (see malt).
Fruit brandy made from plums.
Also called "tequila regular" it's tequila made with a mixture of blue agave and non-agave sugars, such as sugar cane or corn sugars.
A sugar-filled mixture ready for fermentation, such as crushed grapes that are used for wine and Cognac or crushed fruit used for brandy.
Rums made in Britain blended from imported bulk rums, often along with caramel to add both color and sweetness.
Another name for the hearts of a distillate used by scottish whisky producers.
Old Tom gin
Light, sweet gin whose history dates to 18th century London.
A pomace-based spirit made in Spain. (See "pomace.")
A dry flavored spirit produced with ainise made in Greece.
A sweetened French spirit made with ainse.
dense, earth of partially decayed organic matter of plants; heather, moss, grass,seaweed, compacted thousands years. burning-pungent smoke, adds flavor barley, which further develops during fermentation and distillation, giving some whiskies their unique, earthy, smoky, profiles.
Simlar to coffee making whereby spirits are repeatedly passed over botantials and other flavoring agents to exact flavor into the spririt. It is used in cordial production.
A sweetened french spirit made with ainse.
The hearts (center) of the agave plant that swells up with a sugary juice called aguameil used to make tequila and mezcal.
An aromatic brandy made in several Latin American countries, particularly Chile and Peru. Producers use grape juice for their pot-distilled and oak-aged spirits.
A fuller boded gin with some fruit flavor developed around the time of London Dry Gin.
Fruit brandy made from the Williams pear.
The leftover grape skins from wine production—usually from red rather than white production; distilled in either column stills (more common) or pot stills to make grappa (Italy), marc (France) , orujo (Spain) or bagaceira (Portugal)
The oldest of distillation devices. It's a large kettle with a long neck leading up to a condenser coil, which may be submerged in cool water to promote quick condensation inside the tube. It is also known as the Alembic still.
A number double the actual percent of alcohol in the drink (in the United States).
Fermented aguameil (juice from the agave plant)—a milky, cloudy, low-alcohol drink that some consider a Mexican version of beer.
Multistoried buildings where bourbon is aged.
A dry flavored spirit produced with ainise made in Turkey.
Adding water to distillate to achieve a desired alcohol proof level.
A process that occurs when elements fall back from the neck into the pot where they are basically redistilled, making the spirit lighter and more refined.
A Cognac production method that involves disitlling wine along with the "lees" to a fuller-bodied spirit that develops rich dried fruit and nut qualities during barrel maturation. softer mouthfeel, preserves terrior, fater, but too much can be coarser. suited for longer aging, fuller-bodied spirits.
A spirit made from sugar cane and/or molassas.
Rum produced on the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe as well as La Réunion,in the Indian Ocean.
rye whiskey, American
Whiskey made in America with 51 percent rye plus other grains that is distilled up to 160 proof (80% ABV) and stored at up to 125 proof (65.5% ABV) in charred new oak containers. Producers may not add coloring or additives.
Species of grass used to make sugar cane juice and molassas, which can then be processed into rum.
A device invented by French Col. Charles Saladin in the late 1800s to mix barley.
Whisky made and aged at least three years in Scotland. All whisky made in Scotland is Scotch and must follow specific production regulations.
The the tails from the bonne chauffe distillation (distilling brouillis) in Cognac production that may be added to the next batch of Brouillis for the re distillation to make a deeper spirit.
single grain Scotch
Scotch whisky made at a single distillery but includes other grains in addition to malted barley.
Whisky (Scotland) and whiskey (Ireland) made made from malted barley from a single distillery.
small batch Ameican whiskey
Whiskey mixed from limited quantities of the most premium whiskeys. No official guidelines exist for the use of the terms “small batch.”
An aging systesm that includes several layers of casks—usually used sherry casks, called butts—which are interconnected. It is used to make sherry but also some Spainish brandies.
Commonly used for making bourbon, a sour mash consists of "tails" of the distillate from a prior distillation, which is added to each new batch of "wash" before it begins the first distillation. See "backset."
A still used for the second and subsequnet distillations in "batch processing"—ususally smaller than a "wash" still.
Bourbon aged in new, charred American white oak barrels for at least two years and sold unblended or blended only with other straight bourbons.
third portion of the steam created by boiling the wash. Tails include remaining water and the less desirable alcohols, including fusel oils small amt of ethanol and undesirable congeners.
Same as to bourbon. It undergoes the Lincoln County Process, which involves filtering the whiskey through maple charcoal before barrel aging, which mellows the whiskey.
Same as "mixto": tequila made with a mixture of blue agave and non-agave sugars, such as sugar cane or corn sugars.
tequila, extra añejo
A clear tequila that must be aged at least three years.
tequila, reposado ("rested")
Tequilla matured for at least 2 - 12 months in large oak containers
usually second-use oak from American whiskey producers.
tequila, white / silver blanco
A clear tequila
no oak aging
may be bottled without water reduction.
It may be held no more than 60 days in stainless steel before bottling.
matured for at least one year
In large oak containers no larger than 600 liters.
tequlia, gold or joven abocado
An unaged tequilla mixto
includes caramel coloring and possibly other sweeteners.
A high-acid white wine grape that produces a low-alcohol wine well suited for distillation, called "Trebiano" in Italy. It’s the most prolific white grape in France and used as the primary grape used for Cognac and Armaganc brandies.
Used in Scotland and Ireland to describe a blend of single-malt whiskies from several different distilleries.
"Neutral spirits... without distinctive character, aroma, taste, or color,”
U.S.: must be 80 proof to 100 proof
European minimums are 75 proof
Canadian regulations are similar.
Additives are not permitted
The fermented liquid (ex: wine or distillers' beer) that is then distilled into spirits.
The tank where the wort/mash is fermented into the wash.
A still used for distilling the first part of a wash in "batch processing."
wheat whisky, American
Whiskey made in America with 51 percent wheat plus other grains that is distilled up to 160 proof (80% ABV) and stored at up to 125 proof (65.5% ABV) in charred new oak containers. Producers may not add coloring or additives.
-Starts with a mash of grain
-no more than 190 proof
-stored oak containers (except of corn whskey)
-be bottled at least 40 proof.
"in such manner that the distillate possesses the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed to whisky maintaining characteritics similar to whiskey,"
made in Ireland
with malted barley or malt enzymes + various grains.
At least 3 years in wood.
Usually triple distilled in pot stills--not required by law--and is usually unpeated, but some peat is used at the Coolely Distillery. Minimal regulations.
A spirit produced from grains such as barley, wheat, rye, or corn. “The Oxford English Dictionary” reserves the spelling “whisky/whiskies” for those of Scottish, Canadian, or Japanese origin. “Whiskey/whiskeys” is reserved for those originating from Ireland.
The sugary liquid that results from heating a grain mash and water that is then fermented into beer and later distilled into whiskey.
haze forming in glass when water is added to a spirit, more pronounced with anise-flavored spirits.
Water of life in Arabic, French, Galic, Latin
araq, eau-de-vie, uisge beatha, aqua vitae
What are the "belts" when it comes to making spirits?
In Europe Northern part is "Grain belt" where barley and other grains dominate for spirits and in Southern Europe, the fruit belt is where grapes and other fruits can be made into brandy.
Where a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis, such as cooking potatoes to release sugar to ferment before distillation. Enzymes may be added to hydrolyzed carbohydrates to help release sugars too.
Longer fermentation in spirit production does what to final product?
Creates more congeners and complexity. When sugar runs out yeast eats other components including own yeast cells and creates even more congeners.
Alcohols produced during fermentation
ethanol, propanol, butanol, methanol, amyl alcohol.
Amyl alcohol is ...
fussel oils, which are long chain hydrocarbons. They are toxic, but a little can add flavor and texture to a spirit
congeners created during fermentation
various alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and acids.
temperature at which alcohol boils
78.3 degrees Celsius or 173 degrees Fahrenheit.
temperature at which water boils
100 degrees Celsius or 212 F
Percent abv that a spirit reaches in the condenser of a pot still at first run
Heaviest components of a wash that boil last include what type of alcohol
copper conversation means what?
the influence that copper has on the spirit as vapors contact copper still. The longer the neck or "conversation" between copper and spirits the lighter the final drink and shorter means heavier.
How does the speed of distillation affect the final spirit?
quicker means less conversation with copper and heavier spirit. Also if no break ...copper becomes exhausted and spirit is heavier. So cool and periodically rest still!
column stills produce a spirit of what strength?
who produced column still before Aeneas Coffey?
Robert Stein, whose still Aeneas Coffey perfected and patented it.
same as coffey still
Who created the Patton Still? How do you spell name.
year the coffey still was pattoned
1827 check this
Single column still ... where used?
Bourbon, rhum agricole and Armagnac.
How is single column still different from muliple?
Does not distill to as high abv
What is unique about stills used to make cachaca
They are pot stills with rectifying plates in their necks ... like a column still in neck.
Why use a still with more than two columns
produces are purer spirit, removing more congeners for such things as vodka.
Three stages of oak maturation
1 harshes softens through evaporation and carbon in cask; 2-flavors of oak have conversation and add flavors 3-flavors marry and interact create other layer of flavor including rancio, mushroom, cheese ...earthy
flavors from American oak cask
Vanilla, coconut, spice, chocolate
flavors from European oak
more color, dried fruit, incense
flavors from French Oak
firm tannin spice and vanilla.
Word used to describe conversion of starches into sugars
highest level of abv reached via distillation
Parts of pot still
pot with borad base, swan neck leading to worm or condenser, which sits in cool water to promote condensation.
percent abv of first distillate from pot still and final strength from subsequent redistillation
First is about 25 percent (SWE) and subsequent 55% to 70%
American white oak is what genus and variety
Four structural components of oak and what they do
Lignin and Tannins
cellulouse in oak/ percent / function
provides structural integrity and shape of wood, 40 percent of the wood is cellulose
Hemicellulose in oak percent and function
organic compound found in plant walls composed of sugars that are soluable in alcohol. 25 percent of the wood
Lingin in oak percent and function
cements cellulose fibers together to make wood rigid. releases methoxy phenols.. flavor compounds such as vanillin and syringol (tastes like vanilla). 25-30 percent
Flavor compounds in oak
Lactones (coconut flavor) and volital phenolic acids. Volitial acids add 400 aromatic and flavor combinations, SWE
List processes that happen in oak during maturation of spirits
extraction, evaporation, oxidation, concentration,filtration, and coloration.
What does extraction involve during oak maturation?
Wood imparts flavor and more if heated by toasting or charring. When toasted or charred the hemicellulose caramelizes layers of sugars just below the char, gives spirit sweet flavors such as chocolate and butterscotch
What is the red layer
the area below char inside an oak barrel where sugars of the hemicellous have caramelized.
How much liquid does evaporation take from spirits in oak barrels
estimated about 3 percent a year.
after evaporation and oxidation ... the spirit aging in a barrel becomes more concentrated.
Oxidation of spirits aged in oak
oxygen migrates into barrels and disolves in spirit, convert some part into esters and increases aldehyde and acids.
coloration of spirits via oak happens how
color is gained from char (redish) and oxydation (browning).
how does toasting an charring a barrel affect flavor
toasting degrades oak tannins and gives color to spirit and degrades lignin, which produces vanilla flavor; charring heat degrades hemicelluose into 10 sugars that caramelize into he "red layer." SWE
A rum made with sugar cane juice rather than molasses produced in Guyana. spell it.
pumace brandy from Spain.
Fermentation produces what alcohols (five)
Ethanol, propanol, methanol, butanol, amyl alcohol (fussel oils)
In addition to alcohol fermentation produces what chemicals?
Aldehydes, esters, acids.
first pot distillation produces about what abv of alcohol (jays notes)
Pot still used for second distillation of bourbon.
third column in a four column still (after analyzer and rectifier.
American oak gives what flavors (jays notes)
vanilla, coconut, spice, chocolate
French oak gives what flavors (jays notes)
spice and light vanilla.
Name of Cognac still and where it got its name.
charentais. named after the Charente River.
Fashionable Cognac cocktail made with passion fruit and cognac
Name five crus of Cognac and soils
Grand Champagne -chalk-central
Petite Champagne -chalk
Fin Bois -chalk and Clay
Bon Bois -Heavy Clay
Bois Ordinaires -light and sand
Name five Cognac crus and locations
Petite Champagne -hugs gc to south
Borderies -above grandc, central, smallest
Fin Bois -circles first three
Bon Bois -circles fin bois
Bois Ordinaires -west coast and small east enclave
Grapes of cognac and percent of them
95 percent is ugni blanc
rest folle blanche and colombard
What does ugni blanc offer to Cognac?
Good acidity and floral spicy notes and an aroma that the French call patisserie
Aroma of Cognac due to ugni blanc
goal for alcohol level for Cognac low wine
8 to 10 percent abv
Folle Blanche adds what to cognac
supple weight, deeper fruit, angelica and violet flowers
Colombard character for cognac
racy and aromatic
parts of chartentais still
Chauffe-vin (bulbus wine heater with pipe to still)
Chaudiere (body of pot still)
Chapiteau (head of pot still, just before neck)
col de cygne (swan neck passes through chauffe-vin) to
coil and condenser to receiving cask.
ABV of Brouillis
26 to 29 percent abv
What do you call the the process of redistiling brouillis?
Another name of tails of redistilled brouillis
at what abv do Cognac distillers usually cuts hearts?
60 to 58 percent abv
Length of Cognac Distillation
Long conversation with copper--say 9 hours first and 14 for Bonne Chauffe
Hennessy approach to cognac
splits seconds between wine and brouillis, for ripe fruity style.
Do Cognac producers like warm years?
No! they make too little acid and too much sugar!
size of cognac barrels
Forests used for Cognac oak and attributes
Limousin-course grain for quick extraction
Troncais--tighter for longer aging.
how is cognac generally aged, new or old oak?
usually first six in newer (brand new for 4 yer old) for flavor extraction and then over to older oak for maturation, integration, oxidation.
progression of Cognac aging
first extracts fruit, vanilla, then to older oak for nuts, cedar spice then if long term ... rancio decadent decay ....
How does cellar temperature affect cognac
humid-loses strength a volume
dry retains alcohol but loses some flavor and aroma
Cognac strength before and after reduction
collected at 70 percent abv and bottled at 40 abv
When was Cognac and Armegac first produced
Armagnac was first--in 1400s
Cognac -- 1500s
Difference flavors Cognac and Armaganc
Cognac -- grapey and fragrant
Armaganc -- fuller bodied and pruney and richer
Armagnac is hotter so they start with more sugar and less acid; but distilled generally lower alcohol and aged longer.
How is Armagnac distilled
in an armagnac still: single column continous still that distilled to 60 percent abv
Type of oak used to age Armagnac
Limousin, Alsacian, or local Monlezun forest for black oak with high tannin and imparts earthy profile
Armagac Label terms
Three Stars or Very Special -- V.S. 1 year
Very Superior Old Pale -- V.S.O.P. 4 years
Extra Old -- OX 6 years
Extra, Hors d’âge 10 yeaes
Cognac label terms
Three Stars or Very Special -- V.S. 2 years
Very Superior Old Pale -- V.S.O.P. 4 years
Extra Old -- OX or Napoléon, Extra, Hors d’âge 6 years (10 years starting in 2016)
Name of Brandy de Jerez traditioinal still and type
pot still called alquitaras
Grapes for Brandy de Jerez and where they are grown and their attributes.
Airen and Palomino grown in La Mancha and Extremadura, they are high in sugar and low acid.
To qualify for DO status Brandy de Jerez must be
Aged in Jerez, but grapes come from mostly La Mancha.
Profile for Brandy de Jerez
rich, sweet, soft.
Types of still for Brandy de Jerez
some pot but most continuous
name for Brandy de Jerez pot still style and top grade Brandy de Jerez.
Three grades for Brandy de Jerez from column stills and abv each
Holandas -- distilled to 70 percent
aguardente -- 80 percent
destilado - 80 to 94.8
These can be blended for numerous style options.
Pot still is alquitara
Law on blend componets for Brandy de Jerez
50 percent of the blend must be made with spirits distilled no more than 86 percent abv
Brandy de Jerez style usually made with 100 percent Holandas
Solera Gran Reserva.
How is Brandy de Jerez aged
solera only 33 percent removed each year. Old portion of blend give great character to new portion in sherry butts of European or American oak. Prior use such as px, olorosa, fino ... affect brandy flavor too.
Other than Jerez, where else are there Spanish brandy
Penedes in Catalunya, which are made in both charentais (no solera) and continuous stills (solera aged).
Name some early scotch blenders
Andrew Usher (1853), John Walker, William Teacher, James John Chivas, John Dewar
What is the strike point for whisky making
63 to 64 degrees Celsius. Its the ideal temperature for fermenting the mash. hotter could kill enzymes and too cool can stop fermentation,
vessel in which the wort is fermented.
vessel in which mash is mashed up, wort is drawn off from bottom and put into wash back for fermenting.
What is a cloudy wort
when distiller allows some of the mash into the wash back where it adds extra flavor during fermentation (noted in scotch section).
What are the regions of Armagnac, soil and styles?
Bas-Armagac--western area with sand and chalk and stones (boulbenes) most elegant aromatic styles with prune
Ténarèze higher and warmer with more chalk and clay, makes most complex and take time to mature
Haut-Armagac lighter style and less important today. now also making vin de pays wines.
Maxim level of alcohol allowed to distill to in Cognac and Armagac
Max level producers may distill brandy in Europe
94.8 as long as high strength alcohol does not make more than 50 percent of the blend.
How many grapes allowed in Armagac and which are most important.
12 Ugni Blanc and Bacco 22A
Minimum aging of brandy, Cognac and Armagac in EU
Cognac - 2 years
Armagac - 1 year
Brandy - 1 year of 6 months is aged in new small oak barrels.
Three aging categories of Brandy de Jerez
Solera -- average age minimum of 6 months
Reserva --average age at least one year
Gran Reserva -- average age is minimum of 3 years. And is pot Distilled -- alquitara
What is most French Brandy and what are three AOCs for better quality French Brandy
Most is just distilled excess grapes aged a year in wood.
Fine de la Marne (Champagne and its grapes)
Fine de Bordeaux (uses Ugni Blanc)
Fine de Burgundy (Burgundy grapes)
How is German Brandy made
high strength distillate from column still plus can add sugar and up to 1 percent of other stuff such as fortified wine, plums, nuts and almond shells.
How is Pisco made in Elqui Valley, Chile?
Moscatel de Alexandria, Torronel, and PX are vinted and pot distilled.
Classes of Pisco
Selection -- 30 percent abv and unaged
Especial - 35 percent abv aged short time
Reservado 40 percent abv aged longer
Gran Pisco - aged longest
Types of Pisco
Pisco Fur - made with one variety of grapes
Pisco Ciuve - with quebranta or quebranta molle or negra Corriente
Pisco aromatico -- Moscotel, Torrentel, and Albilla
Pisco Verde -- from partially fermented grapes
Type of wood in which Pisco is aged and flavors of fine Pisco
Rauli wood, jasmine and orange
What do they call the grape pommace used for grappa?
vinaccia --- needs to be fresh and moist so must get quickly usually from nearby winery to make it good.
How is grapa distilled
some pot stills, but mostly continous ... steam moves through and pulls out alcohol and congeners
grapes used for grapa
Any single or blended
black gives best quality
white needs to be fermented first and give off more methanol, high acidity. Acidity form white can be used to balance red.
Aging and color of Grapa
Traditionally unaged white spirit, but now some aged briefly in cask usually oak, but some ash.
How many apple varities are used for Calvados and what are the five categories
Sour acidic - stabilize and add freshness
bitter - tannins and fixing aromas
bitter-sweet - gives sugar and tannin
sweet - ensures good sugar levels
Crush and start with natural yeast. Basic AOC takes 4 weeks; Pays d' Auge 6-8 weeks
reaches about 6 percent abv.
Pays d' Auge -- double distilled in Charentais still just like Cognac reaching 65 to 70 abv
AOC is sincle column distilled racier
Domfrontais is single column over direct fire.
How is Calvados aged
short period in new old followed by longer aging is large vats or sometimes smaller barrels.
How many years must scotch age
3 at least