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WSET Spirits > Spirits > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spirits Deck (270):
1

absinthe

A dry flavored spirit whose main flavor component is wormwood. It tastes similar to the licorice-like flavors of anise.

2

ABV

Abbreviation for "alcohol by volume." The percent of a liquid composed of alcohol, primarily ethanol.

3

agave

A plant native to the dry climates of Mexico, Southwestern U.S. states, and Central America, and often mistaken for a cactus. The blue agave variety, known as "agave tequila Weber azul," is used to make tequila.

4

aguamiel

The juice that forms inside the agave plant.

5

Akvavit

A falvored spirt from scandanavia that features the distinctive caraway along with other herbs.

6

apply jack

"Fruit brandy" made from apples.

7

aqua vitae

Latin for “water of life.”

8

Armagnac

A grape spirit/brandy made in the Armagnac region of France.

9

Armagnac still

A column still used to make Armagnac.

10

backset

The "tails" of the distillate from a prior distillation used in bourbon production, added to each new batch of wash before it begins the first distillation. It contains little alcohol but has acids and congeners that add flavor and consistency to to each brand.

11

Baco 22A

A grape that is hybrid of Folle Blanche and an American grape called Noah. It is used along with Ungi Blanc to make to make Armagnac.

12

Pomace-based spirit made in Portugal and spelling.

bagaceira

13

Fibers from the cooked piñas that may be added to a tequila fermentation vessel to add complexity

bagasse

14

batch processing

A distilling process that requires distillers to run the process once, remove the distillate, clean the still, and then start over with the distillate, distilling it until they reach their desired purity level.

15

beer still

The first still used for making whiskey.

16

bitters

Flavored spirits similar to cordials but do not usually include sweetening agents.

17

blended grain Scotch

Scotch whiskey blends of single grain scotch whiskies from more than one distillery.

18

blended Irish Whiskey

Irish whiskey that contains a blend of two ore more distillates.

19

blended malt Scotch

Scotch whiskey that contains two or more single malt whiskies from different distilleries.

20

blended Scotch

Scotch whiskey that are blends of malt and grain whiskies.

21

blended whiskey (American)

blend of straight whiskey, other whiskey, and neutral spirits

must include at least 20 percent of straight whiskey on "a proof gallon basis."

22

bottled-in-bond bourbon

Bourbon
aged four years in charred oak barrels
bottled at 100 proof.
From a single distillery
Vintage: produced in one season.
No coloring or additives are allowed.

23

bourbon

Whiskey made in America
51 percent corn plus other grains
distilled up to 160 proof
stored at up to 125 proof in charred new oak.

24

brandy

A spirit made from fermented and distilled grape juice--basically a distilled wine.

25

brouillis

Distillate from thethe first distillation in Cognac production. It's a low-alcohol spirit of about 30 percent ABV.

26

butts

Barrels used for aging sherry in Spain’s sherry producing region of Jerez.

27

Cachaça

A rum-like spirit made from sugar cane and corn in Brazil.

28

Calvados

An apple brandy (some also include pears) produced in France’s Normandy region.

29

Calvados Domfrontais

A classification for Calvados that is column distilled and must contain 30 percent pear wine.

30

Calvados Pays d’Auge

A classification for Calvados that is double distilled in Cognac’s Charentais pot stills.

31

Canadian Whisky

made in Canada
grains that include some malt or malt enzymes.
aged three years in “small wood,”
"possess the aroma, taste and character generally attributed to Canadian whisky.

32

Charentais pot still

A type of pot still used in Cognac. Also referred to as a "Cognac Still."

33

Coffey still

A still developed by Irishman Aeneas Coffey in 1830. An improved version of another still patented by Scotsman Robert Stein in 1827, it consists of two vertically positioned, column-shaped tanks—one called the analyzer and the other called the rectifier. 

34

Cognac

A grape spirit/brandy, made in the Cognac region of France.

35

Colombard

A grape used in some Cognac and Armagnac, but less common than Ugni Blanc and Bacco 22A (Armagnac only).

36

compound gin

Gin is gin made by adding juniper and other botanicals to a neutral spirit. Compare to distilled gin.

37

compounding

Adding a flavor to a spirit by dirctly mixing in an extract or other flavor component, rather than distilling the spirit with the flavor component.

38

congeners

Various chemical compounds that develop during fermentation and distillation, some of which add flavor and character to the final product.

39

continous distillation

A process that allows distillers to continually add the wash, which is processed through various tanks or “columns” to produce a very pure product that does not need additional processing. Also called "fractional distillation.

40

cordial

Spirits mixed with botanicals or other flavoring agents, as well as a sweeteners and sometimes coloring.

41

corn whiskey (American)

American whiskey made with 80 percent corn plus other grains, with oak aging in new or used containers optional.

42

cut points

The points at which distillers decide to cut the "heads," "hearts," and "tails."

43

demerara

A rum made with sugar cane juice rather than molasses produced in Guyana.

44

distilate

The alcoholic liquid resulting from distilation.

45

distillation

A process that separates various components of a liquid mixture using heat.

46

distilled gin

Gin that is distilled with juniper and other botantials. Compare to "compound gin"

47

distiller’s beer

The final result of grain fermentations. This wash, or "distiller's beer" is much like regular beer, but it usually does not have hops--the flowers from the hop plant that are added to the mash to add flavor for regular beer.

48

dunder

The the residue or “tails” from prior distillations for rum (similar to the sour mash in bourbon making). It contains dead yeast or “lees” and other flavorful congeners.

49

eau-de-vie

French for "water of life."

50

eau-de-vie de cidre

A basic fermented and distilled apple cider in France's Normandy region.

51

esters

Congeners that add desirable fruity flavors and aromas.

52

ethanol

The main component and most desirable alcohol found in wine, beer, and spirits.

53

feints

See "tails"

54

finished scotch

Scotch that is aged in more than one type of barrel, including new oak, second-use port barrels, Bordeaux wine barriques, and others.

55

Folle Blanche

A grape used in some Cognac and Armagnac, but less common than Ugni blanc and Bacco 22A (Armagnac only).

56

foreshots

heads

57

fractional distillation

continuous distillation -- any distillations occur in same process.

58

framboise

Fruit brandy made from rasberries.

59

fruit brandy

A spirit made from fruits other than grapes.

60

fusel oils

Alcohol congeners created during fermentation and released during distillation as part of the "tails."

61

genever

A blend of a pot-distilled spirit produced from a mash of malted barley and other grains and a neutral spirit infused with botanicals that includes juniper.

62

gin

A spirit produced by addition of juniper and other botanicals to a neutral spirit to make a “compound gin” or through the distillation of spirit along with juniper and other botanical flavorings to make a “distilled gin.”

63

grappa

Pomace-based spirit made in Italy. See "pomace."

64

green malt

The barly that has germinated and is ready to be browned in a kiln for malting.

65

grist

A course flour consisting of ground grains that are used to make a mash in whiskey and beer production.

66

heads

The first vapors to emerge when boiling the wash in spirit production. They contain a higher concentration of components that boil at a lower temperature, which includes the less-desirable alcohols, such as methanol.

67

hearts

Collected after the heads are collected when boiling the wash in spirit production. The contain the steam with the highest concentration of the most desirable alcohols and congeners, such as the esters that add floral and fruity notes to the mix.

68

high wine

Distillate resulting from second distillation or distillation of "low wines" in whiskey production.

69

hornos

Brick ovens in which piña are cooked to release sugary juice that can be fermented and distilled into tequila and mezcal.

70

infusion

A process of extracting flavoring agents into a spirit by simply steeping the flavor source in the spirit or water.

71

jimador

Mexican farmers that harvest agave plants used for tequila and mezcal production.

72

kirsch or kirschwasser

Fruit brandy made from cherries.

73

lees

The dead yeast deposits remaining from fermentation that may be mixed with wine during aging or used during distillation (as in Cognac) to add yeasty, bready flavor and complexity to the final product.

74

light whisky, American

-Grain-based whiskey;
-aged in used or uncharred oak containers;
-distilled to more than 160 proof
-When blended And contains less than 20 percent of a straight whiskey, it must be labeled "blended light whiskey"
-No color or additives.

75

liqueur

same as a cordial: flavored and sweetened spirit.

76

London Dry Gin

A light and fresh style that may be made anywhere in the world and is well suited for mixing cocktails. The term "dry," on the label simply indicates the absence of sweetness.

77

low wines

The distillate that results from the first round of "batch distillation" for whiskey production, which is usually around 25 percent "ABV."

78

maceration

Crushing flavor components to extract flavors that are added to or distilled with spirits in the production of cordials and gin. In wine production is describes the process of crushing grapes and soaking to extacting color and flavor components in the skin.

79

malt

The final product of malting.

80

malt whisky, American

Whiskey made in America with 51 percent barley plus other grains that is distilled up to 160 proof (80 percent ABV) and stored at up to 125 proof (65.5% ABV) in charred new oak containers. Producers may not add coloring or additives.

81

malt, Scotch

Scotch made with 100 percent malted barley from a single distillery.

82

malting

A process designed to release enzymes from barely necessary to convert starches in the grain to sugars, which can then be fermented and distilled into grain-based spirits.

83

maltster

A person who processes ungerminated barely into germinated and kiln-dried malt for use in making whiskey.

84

marc

A pomace-based spirit made in France.

85

Martel method

A methold for making cognac that requires quick removal of less from wine before distillation to make a faster maturing, lighter spirit.

86

mash

A mixture of course flower from ground grains (grist) to which enzymes or malt is added to convert starches to sugars, producing the sugarry liquid (wash) that can be fermented and then distilled into spirits.

87

mash bill

A mixture of grains—barley (malted and unmalted), corn, wheat, and rye—which U.S. producers combine to make a grist.

88

mash tun

The vessel in which the mash is heated to release sugars necessary for fermentation.

89

mezcal

Made by fermenting the juice known as aguameil of the agave plant, formerly called mezcal wine. It is a early version of tequila; however, "tequila" may only be made within designated aeras of Mexico using the blue agave species.

90

milling

Grinding germinated and browned barely into a course flour to make the grist for whiskey production (see malt).

91

mirabelle

Fruit brandy made from plums.

92

mixto

Also called "tequila regular" it's tequila made with a mixture of blue agave and non-agave sugars, such as sugar cane or corn sugars.

93

must

A sugar-filled mixture ready for fermentation, such as crushed grapes that are used for wine and Cognac or crushed fruit used for brandy.

94

Navy blends

Rums made in Britain blended from imported bulk rums, often along with caramel to add both color and sweetness.

95

new make

Another name for the hearts of a distillate used by scottish whisky producers.

96

Old Tom gin

Light, sweet gin whose history dates to 18th century London.

97

orujo

A pomace-based spirit made in Spain. (See "pomace.")

98

ouzo

A dry flavored spirit produced with ainise made in Greece.

99

pastis

A sweetened French spirit made with ainse.

100

peat

dense, earth of partially decayed organic matter of plants; heather, moss, grass,seaweed, compacted thousands years. burning-pungent smoke, adds flavor barley, which further develops during fermentation and distillation, giving some whiskies their unique, earthy, smoky, profiles.

101

percolation

Simlar to coffee making whereby spirits are repeatedly passed over botantials and other flavoring agents to exact flavor into the spririt. It is used in cordial production.

102

pernod

A sweetened french spirit made with ainse.

103

piña

The hearts (center) of the agave plant that swells up with a sugary juice called aguameil used to make tequila and mezcal.

104

Pisco

An aromatic brandy made in several Latin American countries, particularly Chile and Peru. Producers use grape juice for their pot-distilled and oak-aged spirits.

105

Plymouth Gin

A fuller boded gin with some fruit flavor developed around the time of London Dry Gin.

106

Poire William

Fruit brandy made from the Williams pear.

107

pomace

The leftover grape skins from wine production—usually from red rather than white production; distilled in either column stills (more common) or pot stills to make grappa (Italy), marc (France) , orujo (Spain) or bagaceira (Portugal)

108

pot still

The oldest of distillation devices. It's a large kettle with a long neck leading up to a condenser coil, which may be submerged in cool water to promote quick condensation inside the tube. It is also known as the Alembic still.

109

proof

A number double the actual percent of alcohol in the drink (in the United States).

110

pulque

Fermented aguameil (juice from the agave plant)—a milky, cloudy, low-alcohol drink that some consider a Mexican version of beer.

111

rackhouses

Multistoried buildings where bourbon is aged.

112

Raki

A dry flavored spirit produced with ainise made in Turkey.

113

reduction

Adding water to distillate to achieve a desired alcohol proof level.

114

reflux

A process that occurs when elements fall back from the neck into the pot where they are basically redistilled, making the spirit lighter and more refined.

115

Rémy method

A Cognac production method that involves disitlling wine along with the "lees" to a fuller-bodied spirit that develops rich dried fruit and nut qualities during barrel maturation. softer mouthfeel, preserves terrior, fater, but too much can be coarser. suited for longer aging, fuller-bodied spirits.

116

rum

A spirit made from sugar cane and/or molassas.

117

rum agricole

Rum produced on the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe as well as La Réunion,in the Indian Ocean.

118

rye whiskey, American

Whiskey made in America with 51 percent rye plus other grains that is distilled up to 160 proof (80% ABV) and stored at up to 125 proof (65.5% ABV) in charred new oak containers. Producers may not add coloring or additives.

119

saccharum officinarum

Species of grass used to make sugar cane juice and molassas, which can then be processed into rum.

120

Saladin box

A device invented by French Col. Charles Saladin in the late 1800s to mix barley.

121

Scotch

Whisky made and aged at least three years in Scotland. All whisky made in Scotland is Scotch and must follow specific production regulations.

122

seconds

The the tails from the bonne chauffe distillation (distilling brouillis) in Cognac production that may be added to the next batch of Brouillis for the re distillation to make a deeper spirit.

123

single grain Scotch

Scotch whisky made at a single distillery but includes other grains in addition to malted barley.

124

single malt

Whisky (Scotland) and whiskey (Ireland) made made from malted barley from a single distillery.

125

small batch Ameican whiskey

Whiskey mixed from limited quantities of the most premium whiskeys. No official guidelines exist for the use of the terms “small batch.”

126

Solera

An aging systesm that includes several layers of casks—usually used sherry casks, called butts—which are interconnected. It is used to make sherry but also some Spainish brandies.

127

sour mash

Commonly used for making bourbon, a sour mash consists of "tails" of the distillate from a prior distillation, which is added to each new batch of "wash" before it begins the first distillation. See "backset."

128

spirit still

A still used for the second and subsequnet distillations in "batch processing"—ususally smaller than a "wash" still.

129

straight bourbon

Bourbon aged in new, charred American white oak barrels for at least two years and sold unblended or blended only with other straight bourbons.

130

tails

third portion of the steam created by boiling the wash. Tails include remaining water and the less desirable alcohols, including fusel oils small amt of ethanol and undesirable congeners.

131

Tennessee whiskey

Same as to bourbon. It undergoes the Lincoln County Process, which involves filtering the whiskey through maple charcoal before barrel aging, which mellows the whiskey.

132

tequila regular

Same as "mixto": tequila made with a mixture of blue agave and non-agave sugars, such as sugar cane or corn sugars.

133

tequila, extra añejo

A clear tequila that must be aged at least three years.

134

tequila, reposado ("rested")

Tequilla matured for at least 2 - 12 months in large oak containers

usually second-use oak from American whiskey producers.

135

tequila, white / silver blanco

A clear tequila
no oak aging

may be bottled without water reduction.

It may be held no more than 60 days in stainless steel before bottling.

136

tequila, añejo

matured for at least one year
In large oak containers no larger than 600 liters.

137

tequlia, gold or joven abocado

An unaged tequilla mixto

includes caramel coloring and possibly other sweeteners.

138

Ugni Blanc

A high-acid white wine grape that produces a low-alcohol wine well suited for distillation, called "Trebiano" in Italy. It’s the most prolific white grape in France and used as the primary grape used for Cognac and Armaganc brandies.

139

vatted whiskey

Used in Scotland and Ireland to describe a blend of single-malt whiskies from several different distilleries.

140

vodka

"Neutral spirits... without distinctive character, aroma, taste, or color,”
U.S.: must be 80 proof to 100 proof
European minimums are 75 proof
Canadian regulations are similar.

Additives are not permitted

141

wash

The fermented liquid (ex: wine or distillers' beer) that is then distilled into spirits.

142

wash back

The tank where the wort/mash is fermented into the wash.

143

wash still

A still used for distilling the first part of a wash in "batch processing."

144

wheat whisky, American

Whiskey made in America with 51 percent wheat plus other grains that is distilled up to 160 proof (80% ABV) and stored at up to 125 proof (65.5% ABV) in charred new oak containers. Producers may not add coloring or additives.

145

whiskey, American

-Starts with a mash of grain
-no more than 190 proof
-stored oak containers (except of corn whskey)
-be bottled at least 40 proof.

"in such manner that the distillate possesses the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed to whisky maintaining characteritics similar to whiskey,"

146

whiskey, Irish

made in Ireland
with malted barley or malt enzymes + various grains.

At least 3 years in wood.
Usually triple distilled in pot stills--not required by law--and is usually unpeated, but some peat is used at the Coolely Distillery. Minimal regulations.

147

whiskey/whisky

A spirit produced from grains such as barley, wheat, rye, or corn. “The Oxford English Dictionary” reserves the spelling “whisky/whiskies” for those of Scottish, Canadian, or Japanese origin. “Whiskey/whiskeys” is reserved for those originating from Ireland.

148

wort

The sugary liquid that results from heating a grain mash and water that is then fermented into beer and later distilled into whiskey.

149

louching

haze forming in glass when water is added to a spirit, more pronounced with anise-flavored spirits.

150

Water of life in Arabic, French, Galic, Latin

araq, eau-de-vie, uisge beatha, aqua vitae

151

What are the "belts" when it comes to making spirits?

In Europe Northern part is "Grain belt" where barley and other grains dominate for spirits and in Southern Europe, the fruit belt is where grapes and other fruits can be made into brandy.

152

Hydrolysis

Where a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis, such as cooking potatoes to release sugar to ferment before distillation. Enzymes may be added to hydrolyzed carbohydrates to help release sugars too.

153

Longer fermentation in spirit production does what to final product?

Creates more congeners and complexity. When sugar runs out yeast eats other components including own yeast cells and creates even more congeners.

154

Alcohols produced during fermentation

ethanol, propanol, butanol, methanol, amyl alcohol.

155

Amyl alcohol is ...

fussel oils, which are long chain hydrocarbons. They are toxic, but a little can add flavor and texture to a spirit

156

congeners created during fermentation

various alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and acids.

157

temperature at which alcohol boils

78.3 degrees Celsius or 173 degrees Fahrenheit.

158

temperature at which water boils

100 degrees Celsius or 212 F

159

Percent abv that a spirit reaches in the condenser of a pot still at first run

23 percent

160

Heaviest components of a wash that boil last include what type of alcohol

fussel oils

161

copper conversation means what?

the influence that copper has on the spirit as vapors contact copper still. The longer the neck or "conversation" between copper and spirits the lighter the final drink and shorter means heavier.

162

How does the speed of distillation affect the final spirit?

quicker means less conversation with copper and heavier spirit. Also if no break ...copper becomes exhausted and spirit is heavier. So cool and periodically rest still!

163

column stills produce a spirit of what strength?

90-95 abv

164

who produced column still before Aeneas Coffey?

Robert Stein, whose still Aeneas Coffey perfected and patented it.

165

Patent still

same as coffey still

166

Who created the Patton Still? How do you spell name.

Aeneas Coffey

167

year the coffey still was pattoned

1827 check this

168

Single column still ... where used?

Bourbon, rhum agricole and Armagnac.

169

How is single column still different from muliple?

Does not distill to as high abv

170

What is unique about stills used to make cachaca

They are pot stills with rectifying plates in their necks ... like a column still in neck.

171

Why use a still with more than two columns

produces are purer spirit, removing more congeners for such things as vodka.

172

Three stages of oak maturation

1 harshes softens through evaporation and carbon in cask; 2-flavors of oak have conversation and add flavors 3-flavors marry and interact create other layer of flavor including rancio, mushroom, cheese ...earthy

173

flavors from American oak cask

Vanilla, coconut, spice, chocolate

174

flavors from European oak

more color, dried fruit, incense

175

flavors from French Oak

firm tannin spice and vanilla.

176

Word used to describe conversion of starches into sugars

saccharification

177

highest level of abv reached via distillation

96.5% (SWE)

178

Parts of pot still

pot with borad base, swan neck leading to worm or condenser, which sits in cool water to promote condensation.

179

percent abv of first distillate from pot still and final strength from subsequent redistillation

First is about 25 percent (SWE) and subsequent 55% to 70%

180

American white oak is what genus and variety

Quercus alba

181

Four structural components of oak and what they do

Cellulose
Hemicelluous
Lignin and Tannins

182

cellulouse in oak/ percent / function

provides structural integrity and shape of wood, 40 percent of the wood is cellulose

183

Hemicellulose in oak percent and function

organic compound found in plant walls composed of sugars that are soluable in alcohol. 25 percent of the wood

184

Lingin in oak percent and function

cements cellulose fibers together to make wood rigid. releases methoxy phenols.. flavor compounds such as vanillin and syringol (tastes like vanilla). 25-30 percent

185

Flavor compounds in oak

Lactones (coconut flavor) and volital phenolic acids. Volitial acids add 400 aromatic and flavor combinations, SWE

186

List processes that happen in oak during maturation of spirits

extraction, evaporation, oxidation, concentration,filtration, and coloration.

187

What does extraction involve during oak maturation?

Wood imparts flavor and more if heated by toasting or charring. When toasted or charred the hemicellulose caramelizes layers of sugars just below the char, gives spirit sweet flavors such as chocolate and butterscotch

188

What is the red layer

the area below char inside an oak barrel where sugars of the hemicellous have caramelized.

189

How much liquid does evaporation take from spirits in oak barrels

estimated about 3 percent a year.

190

Concentration

after evaporation and oxidation ... the spirit aging in a barrel becomes more concentrated.

191

Oxidation of spirits aged in oak

oxygen migrates into barrels and disolves in spirit, convert some part into esters and increases aldehyde and acids.

192

coloration of spirits via oak happens how

color is gained from char (redish) and oxydation (browning).

193

how does toasting an charring a barrel affect flavor

toasting degrades oak tannins and gives color to spirit and degrades lignin, which produces vanilla flavor; charring heat degrades hemicelluose into 10 sugars that caramelize into he "red layer." SWE

194

A rum made with sugar cane juice rather than molasses produced in Guyana. spell it.

demerara

195

orujo

pumace brandy from Spain.

196

Fermentation produces what alcohols (five)

Ethanol, propanol, methanol, butanol, amyl alcohol (fussel oils)

197

In addition to alcohol fermentation produces what chemicals?

Aldehydes, esters, acids.

198

first pot distillation produces about what abv of alcohol (jays notes)

23 percent

199

Doubler

Pot still used for second distillation of bourbon.

200

Hydroselector

third column in a four column still (after analyzer and rectifier.

201

American oak gives what flavors (jays notes)

vanilla, coconut, spice, chocolate

202

French oak gives what flavors (jays notes)

spice and light vanilla.

203

Name of Cognac still and where it got its name.

charentais. named after the Charente River.

204

Fashionable Cognac cocktail made with passion fruit and cognac

Alizé

205

Name five crus of Cognac and soils

Grand Champagne -chalk-central
Petite Champagne -chalk
Borderies -clay
Fin Bois -chalk and Clay
Bon Bois -Heavy Clay
Bois Ordinaires -light and sand

206

Name five Cognac crus and locations

Petite Champagne -hugs gc to south
Borderies -above grandc, central, smallest
Fin Bois -circles first three
Bon Bois -circles fin bois
Bois Ordinaires -west coast and small east enclave

207

Grapes of cognac and percent of them

95 percent is ugni blanc
rest folle blanche and colombard

208

What does ugni blanc offer to Cognac?

Good acidity and floral spicy notes and an aroma that the French call patisserie

209

Aroma of Cognac due to ugni blanc

patisserie

210

goal for alcohol level for Cognac low wine

8 to 10 percent abv

211

Folle Blanche adds what to cognac

supple weight, deeper fruit, angelica and violet flowers

212

Colombard character for cognac

racy and aromatic

213

parts of chartentais still

Chauffe-vin (bulbus wine heater with pipe to still)
Chaudiere (body of pot still)
Chapiteau (head of pot still, just before neck)
col de cygne (swan neck passes through chauffe-vin) to
coil and condenser to receiving cask.

214

ABV of Brouillis

26 to 29 percent abv

215

What do you call the the process of redistiling brouillis?

bonne chauffe

216

Another name of tails of redistilled brouillis

secondes

217

at what abv do Cognac distillers usually cuts hearts?

60 to 58 percent abv

218

Length of Cognac Distillation

Long conversation with copper--say 9 hours first and 14 for Bonne Chauffe

219

Hennessy approach to cognac

splits seconds between wine and brouillis, for ripe fruity style.

220

Do Cognac producers like warm years?

No! they make too little acid and too much sugar!

221

size of cognac barrels

350-400 liters

222

Forests used for Cognac oak and attributes

Limousin-course grain for quick extraction
Troncais--tighter for longer aging.

223

how is cognac generally aged, new or old oak?

usually first six in newer (brand new for 4 yer old) for flavor extraction and then over to older oak for maturation, integration, oxidation.

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progression of Cognac aging

first extracts fruit, vanilla, then to older oak for nuts, cedar spice then if long term ... rancio decadent decay ....

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How does cellar temperature affect cognac

humid-loses strength a volume
dry retains alcohol but loses some flavor and aroma

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Cognac strength before and after reduction

collected at 70 percent abv and bottled at 40 abv

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When was Cognac and Armegac first produced

Armagnac was first--in 1400s
Cognac -- 1500s

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Difference flavors Cognac and Armaganc

Cognac -- grapey and fragrant
Armaganc -- fuller bodied and pruney and richer
Armagnac is hotter so they start with more sugar and less acid; but distilled generally lower alcohol and aged longer.

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How is Armagnac distilled

in an armagnac still: single column continous still that distilled to 60 percent abv

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Type of oak used to age Armagnac

Limousin, Alsacian, or local Monlezun forest for black oak with high tannin and imparts earthy profile

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Armagac Label terms

Three Stars or Very Special -- V.S. 1 year
Very Superior Old Pale -- V.S.O.P. 4 years
Extra Old -- OX 6 years
Extra, Hors d’âge 10 yeaes

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Cognac label terms

Three Stars or Very Special -- V.S. 2 years
Very Superior Old Pale -- V.S.O.P. 4 years
Extra Old -- OX or Napoléon, Extra, Hors d’âge 6 years (10 years starting in 2016)

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Name of Brandy de Jerez traditioinal still and type

pot still called alquitaras

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Grapes for Brandy de Jerez and where they are grown and their attributes.

Airen and Palomino grown in La Mancha and Extremadura, they are high in sugar and low acid.

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To qualify for DO status Brandy de Jerez must be

Aged in Jerez, but grapes come from mostly La Mancha.

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Profile for Brandy de Jerez

rich, sweet, soft.

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Types of still for Brandy de Jerez

some pot but most continuous

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name for Brandy de Jerez pot still style and top grade Brandy de Jerez.

alquitara

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Three grades for Brandy de Jerez from column stills and abv each

Holandas -- distilled to 70 percent
aguardente -- 80 percent
destilado - 80 to 94.8
These can be blended for numerous style options.

Pot still is alquitara

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Law on blend componets for Brandy de Jerez

50 percent of the blend must be made with spirits distilled no more than 86 percent abv

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Brandy de Jerez style usually made with 100 percent Holandas

Solera Gran Reserva.

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How is Brandy de Jerez aged

solera only 33 percent removed each year. Old portion of blend give great character to new portion in sherry butts of European or American oak. Prior use such as px, olorosa, fino ... affect brandy flavor too.

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Other than Jerez, where else are there Spanish brandy

Penedes in Catalunya, which are made in both charentais (no solera) and continuous stills (solera aged).

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Name some early scotch blenders

Andrew Usher (1853), John Walker, William Teacher, James John Chivas, John Dewar

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What is the strike point for whisky making

63 to 64 degrees Celsius. Its the ideal temperature for fermenting the mash. hotter could kill enzymes and too cool can stop fermentation,

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Wash back

vessel in which the wort is fermented.

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mash tun

vessel in which mash is mashed up, wort is drawn off from bottom and put into wash back for fermenting.

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What is a cloudy wort

when distiller allows some of the mash into the wash back where it adds extra flavor during fermentation (noted in scotch section).

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What are the regions of Armagnac, soil and styles?

Bas-Armagac--western area with sand and chalk and stones (boulbenes) most elegant aromatic styles with prune
Ténarèze higher and warmer with more chalk and clay, makes most complex and take time to mature
Haut-Armagac lighter style and less important today. now also making vin de pays wines.

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Maxim level of alcohol allowed to distill to in Cognac and Armagac

86 percent

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Max level producers may distill brandy in Europe

94.8 as long as high strength alcohol does not make more than 50 percent of the blend.

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How many grapes allowed in Armagac and which are most important.

12 Ugni Blanc and Bacco 22A

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Minimum aging of brandy, Cognac and Armagac in EU

Cognac - 2 years
Armagac - 1 year
Brandy - 1 year of 6 months is aged in new small oak barrels.

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Three aging categories of Brandy de Jerez

Solera -- average age minimum of 6 months
Reserva --average age at least one year
Gran Reserva -- average age is minimum of 3 years. And is pot Distilled -- alquitara

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What is most French Brandy and what are three AOCs for better quality French Brandy

Most is just distilled excess grapes aged a year in wood.
Fine de la Marne (Champagne and its grapes)
Fine de Bordeaux (uses Ugni Blanc)
Fine de Burgundy (Burgundy grapes)

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How is German Brandy made

high strength distillate from column still plus can add sugar and up to 1 percent of other stuff such as fortified wine, plums, nuts and almond shells.

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How is Pisco made in Elqui Valley, Chile?

Moscatel de Alexandria, Torronel, and PX are vinted and pot distilled.

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Classes of Pisco

Selection -- 30 percent abv and unaged
Especial - 35 percent abv aged short time
Reservado 40 percent abv aged longer
Gran Pisco - aged longest

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Types of Pisco

Pisco Fur - made with one variety of grapes
Pisco Ciuve - with quebranta or quebranta molle or negra Corriente
Pisco aromatico -- Moscotel, Torrentel, and Albilla
Pisco Verde -- from partially fermented grapes

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Type of wood in which Pisco is aged and flavors of fine Pisco

Rauli wood, jasmine and orange

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What do they call the grape pommace used for grappa?

vinaccia --- needs to be fresh and moist so must get quickly usually from nearby winery to make it good.

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How is grapa distilled

some pot stills, but mostly continous ... steam moves through and pulls out alcohol and congeners

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grapes used for grapa

Any single or blended
black gives best quality
white needs to be fermented first and give off more methanol, high acidity. Acidity form white can be used to balance red.

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Aging and color of Grapa

Traditionally unaged white spirit, but now some aged briefly in cask usually oak, but some ash.

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How many apple varities are used for Calvados and what are the five categories

46
Sour acidic - stabilize and add freshness
bitter - tannins and fixing aromas
bitter-sweet - gives sugar and tannin
sweet - ensures good sugar levels

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Calvados fermentation?

Crush and start with natural yeast. Basic AOC takes 4 weeks; Pays d' Auge 6-8 weeks
reaches about 6 percent abv.

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Calvados Distillation?

Pays d' Auge -- double distilled in Charentais still just like Cognac reaching 65 to 70 abv
AOC is sincle column distilled racier
Domfrontais is single column over direct fire.

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How is Calvados aged

short period in new old followed by longer aging is large vats or sometimes smaller barrels.

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How many years must scotch age

3 at least

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How many years must scotch age

3 at least