Splanchnic Viscera- Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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1

What is viscera?

Pertaining to the internal organs located within the ventral body cavity

2

Where is the thoracic cavity?

Above the diphragm

3

What cavities are contained within the thoracic cavity?

Left pleural cavity
Right pleural cavity
Mediastinal cavity (includes pericardial)

4

What are the two cavities within the abdominopelvic cavity?

Abdominal cavity
Pelvic cavity

5

Abdominal cavity

stomach, liver, spleen, GI Pancreas, kidneys

6

Pelvic cavity

Last part of the large intestines and reproductive organs

7

What do body cavities do?

Body cavities protect organs and allow space for organ movement like inflation of lungs or contraction of heart

8

Splanchnic Circulation

Refer to the vasculature within the abdominopelvic cavity priot to the iliac bifurcation of renal vessels

9

What is not considered part of the splanchnic system due to positioning function?

Independent autoregulation
Direct aortic and IVC drainage
Kidneys

10

What are the limitations of research?

Small sample size
Difficulty in monitoring abdominal viscera and correlating to outcomes
Conflicting data
Controlling for other variables

11

Updated Research: Incidence of GI Complication

4.1%

12

Updated Research: LOS

19.3 vs 8.8

13

Updated Research: Inpatient Mortality

12.0% vs 2.5%

14

Risk Factors for Mortality of CPB and Splanchnic Circulation

Age > 65
Dialysis
IABP
+Valve procedure
urgency

15

Stomach

Stores and breaks down ingested food via acids and enzymes (chyme); release into the small intestine controlled by pyloric sphincter

16

Chyme

pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food

17

What percent of nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestine?

90%

18

How long is the small intestine?

20ft

19

Duodenum

First 10'' serves as "mixing bowl" for chyme and digestive enzymes from liver and pancreas

20

Jejunum

Approx 8'', primary site of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption

21

Ileum

Approx 12' last section before large intestine. Large [ ] of lymphoid nodules to protect SI from bacteria in LI

22

How long is the large intestine?

5'

23

What happens in the large intestine?

Small amount of nutrient absorption, primarily vitamins from bacterial byproducts, fluid, and bicarb reabsorption; compaction and storage of chyme into fecal matter

24

CPB and GI Effects

CPB results in an increase in intestinal blood flow due to decrease in R

Increase in BF independent of T, pH, or pCO2. *Autoregulation
Most studies show slight decrease in pH, but did not correlate to negative outcome
Intestinal BF during CPB seems to be independent of MAP and dependent on Q

25

Extensive use of what during CPB exacerbates the risk of inadequate mesenteric perfusion?

Vasoconstrictors

26

What's the incidence of GI complications in cardiac surgery?

Low

27

What's the level of mortality in the GI instances in cardiac surgery?

High

28

Risk equation

Risk = probability x severity

29

Pancreas Function

Production of digestive enzymes and buffers (NaHCO3) to neutralize acidic chyme

30

What are the arterial blood sources of the pancreas?

Splenic, hepatic, sup. Mesenteric