Sport,Ethics, Deviancy And The Law Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sport,Ethics, Deviancy And The Law Deck (32):
1

Positive Deviancy

- athletes are encouraged to behave in ways that would be unacceptable in other spheres of life

- over conforming to sport ethic

- for example they have an injury but carry on playing

2

Causes Of Deviance

- lack of moral constraint to keep to code of conduct

- winning value over loss of respect or punishment

- rewards of winning are so great

- deviant behaviour more socially acceptable

- NGBs less able to punish due to commercial interests or fears of performers power in court

3

Violence between players

How- premeditated

Cause- genetic, frustration, loss of identity, social learning

Control- performer, manager, coach and NGB

4

NGB method to control violence

- match official decisions

- post match punishment with video

- reward good discipline

- role models upheld

- training officials in player management

5

Manager and Coaches method to control violence

- set good example

- clear expectation and conduct

- praise and promote players

- use team talks and arousal levels

- avoid a situation of winning at all costs

- train players to manage their own arousal

6

Performers method of control

- exposure to good role models from a young age

- good parents, coaches and leaders

- understanding the importance of anger and frustration control

- avoid these situations through rules/ethics

7

Method to control hooliganism

- segregation of fans and alcohol bans

- known hooligan database and monitoring

- CCTV cameras and all seater stadium

- high profile role models- kick out racism

- responding to poor performer and fan behaviour with bans and rules

- police and steward intelligence

- commercialisation and Americanisation

8

Effect that violence has on sport and the wider society

- poor treatment of legitimate forces

- deliberate foul play on performers

- cost of policing and stewarding

- reputation of a nation

- individual performers may lose opportunity to compete

9

Negative Deviancy

- violations such as deliberately fouling another player or taking drugs

- win at all costs

10

Why do performers use drugs?

1) lack moral and ethical boundaries that prevent others from engaging in an action that most performer would see as wrong

2) they may believe everyone else is doing it- can't win unless they do

3) lack physical and psychological attributes

4) they are not fully aware that they are using drugs

5) the rewards of winning are so great that it's temps them to go beyond what is acceptable

6) receive wrong guidance

7) not aware of long term health risks

8) they are pressured by coaches and team managers

9) to steady nerves- increase confidence

10) fame

11

How do NGBs battle against performers use of drugs?

- providing testing regimes and lavatory facilities

- taking punitive action

- trying to educate young performers in ethical and moral case and ensuring they are aware of the consequences

- ensuring performers are aware of what is and what isn't allowed

12

WADA- battle against drug taking

- responsible for promoting, co ordinating and monitoring the fight against drugs

- provides a framework, rules and regulations- world anti doping code

- they promote research in the detection of drugs

- they help the poorer nations who have limited facilities

13

UK Sport and NADO

- UK sport primary aim is being responsible for anti doping policy and strategy

- they hand over the management of testing programmes to NADO who

1) will determine which sports will be required to provide info on players whereabouts

2) athletes on the system will be agreed between the NADO and the sport NGBs

3) performers will be required to provide info on their exact whereabouts for one hour a day, seven days a week and full details of their training

4) missed tests and filing failures will be a strike- 3 of these is serious

5) sanction on 1 or 2 years

14

What is being done to deter performers from taking drugs?

1) NGBs are doing more to try and educate about the long term hazards to their health

2) making performers clear on testing regime, their responsibilities and the possible outcomes for a positive test

3) increase in the amount of out of comp and no warning tests

4) punishments have become worse

5) more consistent approach among countries

6) positive role models used to talk to younger performers

7) more sophisticated tests

15

UK performers have to submit themselves to a drug testing regime as agreed with their NGB- this includes

1) notification by the performer of their whereabouts in UK sport

3) drug tester turning up at any time

3) taking the samples laid down by the NADO including the choosing of sample pots

4) ask if they have taken medication in the last 7 days

5) bar coding the sample so that the athletes identity is not known by the laboratory

16

Why shouldn't drugs be banned?

1) new tests for new drugs and testing regimes are all very expensive and time consuming- more money should should be used on improving support for performers

2) tests are not always done properly- it's a lottery- makes it unfair for performers

3) those athletes who have the up to date resources can go undetected for a while as drug testers will not have caught up

4) nutritional supplements have beneficial effects on performance- the difference between this and a drug is hard to define

5) the sacrifices a performer is prepared to make to achieve success are a personal decision

6) If drugs leads to new records it will make the sport more exciting for performers and gain more TV viewers- more money into the sport


17

Why should drugs be banned ?

1) there is always going to be bad health side effects

2) if drugs became legalised it would be assumed that you can't achieve without them and this would put pressure on young performers who are not aware of the side effects

3) performers will get pressure from coaches and teammates

4) drugs not available to all

5) sport is about the development of natural talent
Drugs is boosting this talent artificially

18

Difficulties in preventing drug taking

1) development of new drugs all the time

2) drugs are often taken accidentally

3) many nutritional substances contain banned substances

4) different sports/countries have different regs

19

Discuss the suggestion that doping is necessary at elite level and outline the strategies sporting organisations use to limit the use of banned substances by performers.
[14 marks]

Agree

A. Enhances physical psychological attributes/increases chances of winning/better standards of performance

B. Train longer/recover quicker

C. Other technological aids are used/doping can be viewed as another
training aid

D. If properly monitored not as great a health risk as people think

E. People should be free to choose

F. Institutionalised/encouraged use by coaches

G. Many banned substances are available legally/may be naturally
occurring in the body

H. Testing not always accurate/can’t detect new substances


Disagree

I. Health risks

J. Unfair advantage/against ‘contract to compete’/cheating/negative
deviancy

K. Not all performers have access to doping methods/ensures level
playing field for all performers/some are successful without using drugs

L. Consequences if caught eg shame/loss of earnings/poor image of sport

M. Negative role models for children

N. Encourages drug taking from early on/more athletes/perception ‘if you
don’t take it, you won’t make it’/peer pressure to take drugs


Strategies

O. Random/out of season testing /no warning tests/ testing

P. Reform/devise structured approach/strong anti-doping culture/clear
guidelines on website/’100% ME’ campaign

Q. Better coordination between organisations/shared policies/policies eg WADA/World Anti-Doping code/NADO/UK Sport Ethics Department or
equiv

R. Education programmes for athletes/coaches

S. Punishments/life bans/strip guilty athletes of medals

T. More funding for testing programmes/improved technology for testing/
testing centres

U. Use of positive/negative role models/name and shame

V. Funding/sponsorship received by athlete to be returned if found guilty/
contracts contain clauses if caught doping

W. Use of athlete biological passport

X. Use of the media to portray an appropriate image/sports marketing
experts

20

How is the ethic of fair play encouraged and maintained at the highest level of sport? (3 marks)

1. Penalties within the event . bookings/free kicks/ sin bin or eq.;

2. Penalties after the event . bans/fines or eq.;

3. Fair play awards / allocation of place in major event based on disciplinary record;

4. Clubs fined / points deducted;

5. Matches played behind closed doors / spectators banned from watching;

6. Fair play charters / code of conduct / campaigns;

7. Drug testing.

21

How does the law and sports legislation help to ensure that performers are protected during sporting contests? (3 marks)


Protect against violent play

Employment contracts with clubs/Sponsorship/commercial contracts/avoid burnout

Ensure duty of care from officials/negligence of poor referees

Safe playing environment/stadiums are suitable for purpose

Protection from violent spectators/hooligans/terrorist threats

Ensure opponents using doping methods are banned

Equality legislation/racism act/sexism act/disability acts/age or weight categories/gender

22

2. Explain the consequences of spectator violence, for example hooliganism, for the clubs and the sporting authorities. 4 marks


A.Negative image of sport causes decline in participation rates/smaller foundation base

B.Spectator attendance declines

C.Supporters banned from travelling/attending/matches played behind closed doors

D.All supporters treated as hooligans

E.Teams banned from competing/loss of points/fined

F.Sponsors/commercial deals withdrawn

G.Additional cost to police events/provide more stewards

H.Relationship with local community/other countries declines /negative impact for hosting future events

23

Why might an elite performer commit an act of violence on the pitch? (3 marks)

1. Over-strong desire to win/over arousal/pressure

2. May be encouraged/asked to do so by coach/team mates/pressure from
sponsors/crowds

3. Player loses control due to action of opponents/referee
decisions/retaliates/frustration

4. Player lacks moral/ethical restraints on personal behaviour

5. Financial rewards

6. Importance of game/cup final/equivalent

24

4. Explain, using examples, why an elite performer may need the protection of the law during their sporting careers. (4 marks)

1. Opposition player fouls/protection from violence

2. Off field of play – contracts with employers/administration of wages/assets/Bosman
ruling

3. Sponsorship deals/commercial deals

4. Protection from media intrusion into private life

5. Protection from hooligans during and after games

6. Maintenance of restricted areas during training/competitions

7. Protection from racism/equal opportunities






25

How does the law and sports legislation help to ensure that performers are protected
during sporting contests?
(3 marks)


A. Protect against violent play

B. Employment contracts with
clubs/Sponsorship/commercial contracts

C. Ensure duty of care from officials/negligence of poor referees

D. Safe playing environment stadiums are suitable for purpose

E. Protection from violent spectators/hooligans/terrorist threats

F. Ensure opponents using doping methods are banned

G. Equality legislation/racism act/sexism act/disability acts/age or weight categories/gender

26

Explain the advantages and the disadvantages of all sports, in all countries, testing for performance enhancing drugs.
(4 marks)

Advantages

A. Uphold the traditions of sport/sporting ethics/cheats are caught

B. Standard list of banned substances/same testing procedures/similar punishments

C. Random tests are more effective/testing not limited by where the athlete is based

D. Shared costs between all sports

E. Performers not able to‘pick and choose sports based on drug testing procedures/no basis for legal complaints of being unfairly treated


Disadvantages

F. Difficult to get all countries/sports to agree

G. Expensive/limited number of testing facilities/not available in all countries

H. Testingcanproduceincorrectresults/inconsistent results/difficult to keep up with new drugs

I. Difficult to agree which PED should be included in banned lists

J. Professionals have the right to decide on their own development needs

K.Money used for testing could be used for education about dangers of drug taking

27

Discuss the suggestion that there has been a decline in sportsmanship since the late 19th Century and outline strategies that the sporting authorities have used in an attempt to maintain high standards of behaviour. (14 marks

Agree

A. Explanation of sportsmanship–unwrittenrulesof etiquette/FairPlay

B. 19th century sport run by middle/upper class/elite performers were amateur/amateur sport was dominant

C. Based on concept of amateurism–playing for love of sport/ not paid

D. Based on concept of athleticism–physicalendeavour and moral integrity

E. (During 20th century) professionalism increased/greater extrinsic rewards/more money involved/more commercialisation

F. Greater pressure from media/national expectation/media encourages copying of poor role models

G. Increase in win at all cost attitude/Lombardian ethic

H. Caused an increase in gamesmanship–bending the rules

I. (Increase in) doping/violent play/cheating/abusive language/match fixing/deviancy/prosecutions


Disagree

J. Sportsmanship promoted at events eg Olympics/Olympism/ Olympic Ideal

K.Performers are role models and understand their responsibility

L. Greater need to maintain image to retain sponsors/ commercial deals/image of sport

M. (during 19th Century) corruption was part of sport/may not have declined just now more widely reported in the media


Strategies

N. Campaigns to promote sportsmanship/Respect/Fairplay Awards

O. Better officials/citing after game/better technology to help officials/fourth official

P. Ruleschangedtopromotefairplay

Q. (On the field) – penalties/sin bins/bookings

R. (Offthefield)–fines/bans

S. Punishtheclub–deductpoints/matches behind closed doors

T. Positive role models/name and shame bad role models

U. Codes of conduct for players/spectators

V. Drug Testing

W. Prosecute violent play

28

Outline the possible causes of spectator violence, such as hooliganism, at sporting events and explain how the law aims to protect spectators. (14 marks)

Causes of spectator violence

A. Display of masculinity
B. Gang culture/sense of belonging/identity/peer pressure/tribalism
C. Crowd mentality/loss of individual identity/diminished responsibility
D. Nature of the sport
E. Alcohol/drugs
F. Local rivalry/derby game/importance of the event
G. Racism/nationalism/politicalgroups/religion
H. Adrenalin rush/excitement of violence/outlet for aggression
I. Events during the match/reaction to players/referee
decisions/current score/outcome of the event/final result/
provocation
J. Reaction of working class to middle class ‘taking-over’ the game
K. Media hype
L. Nature of the stadium/poor
crowd control/poor security


Law to protect spectators
M. Gamesplayedatspecifiedtime/kick-offtimesimposedbypolice
N. Pubs banned from opening prior to game
O. All seater stadiums/health & safety requirements
P. Violent/racist individuals prosecuted
Q. Specific laws, eg trespassing on the pitch/field of play
R. Individuals banned from grounds
S. Individuals banned from travel abroad/passports confiscated
T. Increased police/security at events/use of CCTV
U. Players fined/prosecuted for inciting crowd violence/gestures to
crowd/racist comments
V. Police share information about known individuals
W. Ticket touts/black market ticket sales

29

Suggest reasons why there have been very few instances of spectator violence at the modern Olympic Games compared to some other major sporting events. (4 marks)

A. Olympics only once every 4 years

B. Crowds from many countries/less intense rivalry

C. Fairplay/international understanding encouraged/Olympic ideal
actively promoted

D. Less media hype to incite crowd

E. Family orientated

F. Alcohol drinking culture not usual

G. Less pre-arranged organised violence

H. Behaviour of performers does not deliberately incite opposition
supporters

I. Multi-sport competition

30

Discuss the suggestion that doping is necessary at elite level and outline the strategies sporting organisations use to limit the use of banned substances by performers.
[14 marks]

Agree

A. Enhances physical/psychological attributes/increases chances of winning/better standards of performance

B. Train longer/recover quicker

C. Other technological aids are used/doping can be viewed as another
training aid

D. If properly monitored not as great a health risk as people think

E. People should be free to choose

F. Institutionalised/encouraged use by coaches or equiv.

G. Many banned substances are available legally/may be naturally occurring in the body eg some athletes will have higher testosterone
than others

H. Testing not always accurate/can’t detect new substances


Disagree

I. Health risks

J. Unfair advantage/against ‘contract to compete’/cheating/negative
deviancy

K. Not all performers have access to doping methods/ensures level playing field for all performers/some are successful without using drugs

L. Consequences if caught eg shame/loss of earnings/poor image of sport

M. Negative role models for children

N. Encourages drug taking from early on/more athletes/perception ‘if you don’t take it, you won’t make it’/peer pressure to take drugs


Strategies

O. Random/out of season testing /no warning tests/ testing

P. Reform/devise structured approach/strong anti-doping culture/clear
guidelines on website/’100% ME’ campaign

Q. Better coordination between organisations/shared policies/policies eg
WADA/World Anti-Doping code/NADO/UK Sport Ethics Department

R. Education programmes for athletes/coaches

S. Punishments/life bans/strip guilty athletes of medals

T. More funding for testing programmes/improved technology for testing/
testing centres

U. Use of positive/negative role models/name and shame

V. Funding/sponsorship received by athlete to be returned if found guilty/ contracts contain clauses if caught doping

W. Use of athlete biological passport

X. Use of the media to portray an appropriate image/sports marketing
experts

31

Discuss the continued relevance of the contract to compete for elite performers in today’s society (4 marks)

Still relevant

A. on field of play without rules sport would be dysfunctional/ officials are there to enforce the rules

B. FairPlay is an important concept/still have Fair Play awards/ respect for opponents still encouraged e.g. shake hands / Olympic Ideal

C. if people don’t try hard enough there is no satisfaction/elite athletes are publicly funded so should always try their hardest /role models are expected to uphold standards

D. (off field of play) methods in place to ensure rules enforced/performers receive bans to ensure others can compete and show skill e.g. for doping/violent play/compulsory drug testing


Not relevant

E. athletes should try to win at any cost/Lombardianethic/ winning has become more important

F. concept belongs to a past age/ middle class concept from 19 century/ athletes should only have to abide by written rules / different cultures have different interpretations – different values

G. athlete schedules are physically and mentally punishing – can’t always give 100% / enter weaker team due to more important fixture in the future

H. more performers taking drugs/displayviolence/disrespect officials/more deviancy

32

Suggest reasons to support the argument for legalising drugs in sport today.
[4 marks]

A. Drugs can be masked/occur naturally in body/EPO/gene doping/found in common medication

B. Drugs so easily available/impossible to illuminate use of drugs

C. Overall low rate of testing

D. negative impact of poor testing)affects performers reputation/careers/sponsorship deals

E. Drugs if regulated are not so harmful/labs could be encouraged to produce safe performance enhancers

F. if everyone could take them it would become a level playing
field

G. Limited resources could be better employed e.g. to detect harmful drugs/develop elite sport in other ways

H. Drugs are necessary to recover from the gruelling training

I. Other technological advantages aren’t regulated against e.g.
biomechanics/nutrition/oxygen tents

J. Sports and countries have different rules

K. Individuals have the right to choose/it’s their body

L. Spectators or supporters not disappointed by role models