When did Lenin die?
Potential leaders apart from stalin?
Trotsky, kamenev, zinoviev, bukharin
What was in Lenin’s final testament regarding Stalin?
Criticised him, feared Stalin’s powers and believed he didn’t have the ability to lead a country
What role did Stalin have when Lenin died?
General Secretary of the Communist Party
What were Stalins beliefs?
‘Socialism in One Country’, spread of revolution internationally wasn’t necessary for USSRs success
What were Trotskys beliefs?
‘Permanent Revolution’, need for revolution in more than one country
Why were zinoviev and kamenev criticised by Lenin?
They didn’t support the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917
Opinions on bukharin?
Was liked by communists and respected as a thinker/writer. Liked NEP policies which was viewed as ‘anti-communist’ because it led to NEPmen/women
When did Stalin become leader of the country?
What did Stalin do at Lenin’s funeral?
- buried Lenin’s final testament
- carried his coffin, positioned him as Lenin’s loyal servant
- told Trotsky the wrong date
When did Trotsky lose his job as Commissar for War
When was Trotsky killed?
Why was United Opposition removed?
Lenin outlawed factionalism in1921, labelling them ‘factionalists’ made them seem disloyal.
Why was collectivisation introduced?
Wanted an acceleration in the country’s industrialisation and introduced strict state control over food production to feed the cities.
When was bukharin expelled from Politburo?
Why was bukharin expelled?
Was condemned ‘right communist’, began plotting with kamenev to stop Stalin and got exposed.
When was The Great Purge?
Why were purges used?
As a way to distract people from economic issues and challenges to secure Stalin’s position. Helped to control communist party bosses and prevent corruption/disloyalty to Stalin.
What was ‘wrecking’?
Acts against the state (giving wrong orders)
What is a show trial?
Where the judicial authorities have already decided innocent/guilty and its publicised.
How many officers were arrested 1937-38?
What happened to ‘Old Bolsheviks’?
They were killed
What were Kamenev and Zinoviev accused of?
Killing a communist party official (Kirov) and plotting to kill Stalin
How many people affected by Great Terror?
- 8 million arrested
- 1 million shot
- 2 million died in labour camps
Why was Yagoda executed?
‘Wrecking’, not arresting enough ‘enemies of the people’
Examples of crime ‘enemies of the people’?
Contact with foreigners, not cutting pictures of Trotsky from textbooks.
Technique NKVD used?
mass arrests, forced confessions, and informants.
How many people were housed in Gulags 1941?
8 million prisoners
Who were show trials for?
High profile Russians
What was the outcome of show trials?
People often confessed to a crime they didn’t do in hope of mercy and to protect their loved ones.
Why did many workers support the show trials?
They could denounce their bosses for personal reasons, get them fired/arrested
What did Socialist realism focus on?
Workers in everyday situations, they were depicted as the heroes of Soviet society.
What did the Cultural Revolution require?
School students to denounce their teachers for not supporting communism.
How was curriculum changed?
Was in Stalin’s world view, rewrote history to praise Stalin as Lenin’s loyal assistant.
What did communists do to the Orthodox Church?
Many churches were shut down, priests were imprisoned/shot.
How many churches were open by 1941?
What happened to Muslims?
- attacked as the government hates foreigners and their religion was loyal to forces outside of USSR
- schools/ places of worship shut down
- hajj pilgrimage to Mecca wasn’t allowed
Who controlled publication of statistics?
What was banned in the media?
Work written by those who has been purged, Trotsky was removed from photos
Why did people not know what to believe?
Because the government was in control of information.
Why didn’t people question the truth?
Many had only little education
Why was there a new constitution in 1936?
To show that the Soviet Union has changed since 1924 constitution
What were some art forms that were censored under Stalin?
What was Stalin presented as?
A wise leader who cared about the concerns of ordinary people, genius who understood communism and its politics in a way that no-one else could.