Why did the Bolsheviks start condemning the Provisional Government?
because they did not pull Russia out of the war or instigate any meaningful reform.
What was The Decree on Peace?
November 1917, for all countries in the war to begin peace talks. A good way to take decisive action which would be popular amongst workers and soldiers.
The Decree on Land
8th November, land to be taken from landowners and given to peasants. Gave legal backing for these actions as it would happen informally.
Decree on workers rights
An 8 hour working day/ 48 hour week. Decree on employment introduced insurance for unemployed/injured/ill.
What was the outcome of the decrees?
Soviets across the nations supported them as people felt they were experiencing new Russia. Seen as a unifying force and helped to rally non-Bolsheviks behind new regime.
When did the Constituent Assembly shut down?
After just one day of its first session in January 1918. Shut by Bolsheviks and the Red Guards.
Why did the Constituent Assembly get shutdown?
Without control of enough seats, they were unwilling to allow the assembly to continue.
Why was the tsar, his family/doctor/servants executed?
17th July 1918. Civil war broke out and there was suspicion of ‘white’ armies releasing them.
Impact of the treaty of Brest-litovsk
Signed to make peace with Germany. Russia lost 26% of its population, over a quarter of its farmland and railroads, industrial areas including 74% of iron and coal supplies.
Why did Bolsheviks agree to Brest-Litovsk?
- quick end to war to give them space to set up new rule
- had to deal with opposition
- didn’t think the treaty would last long, thought revolutions would spread across Europe
What was Lenin’s government called?
How was the Civil War triggered?
Disagreements over which form of government would be best for Russia and whether or not they should be involved in WWI.
Who were the Reds?
Who were the Whites?
Nationalists and monarchists
Who were the Greens
Peasant armies fight against any outside rule by Whites or Reds, particularly in Siberia
Who were Anti-Bolsheviks?
- left wing groups: wanted a more democratic Russia
- conservatives: opposed Bolsheviks proposals for profound social/economic change
- groups of soldiers from other countries who had been captured during the First World War and found themselves in Russia
What did the Bolsheviks control?
Central Russia, helped their position in war.
What was the Bolsheviks propaganda organisation called?
What did agitprop do?
Spread the Bolshevik message using art, posters and entertainment to influence the peoples thought
What did the soldiers in the Red Armyreceive?
education, learning to read and write and to understand the political aims of the Bolsheviks
What was The Red Banner?
An award for those who fought bravely.
Problems the whites faced
- little control over strategic industries, at most had 250,00 in armies
- lacked leadership/individual, no goal but to defeat Bolsheviks
- where unpopular because they treated peasants badly
Why did foreign countries intervene?
Wanted to encourage the whites and prevent the spread of Bolshevism
what was the Cheka?
Bolshevik political police
Outcome of civil war
- millions of people died
- economy was severely weakened
- food shortages
When were all non-Bolshevik newspapers banned?
What happened to the Kadet part in December 1917?
Banned, leaders arrested
What were law courts replaced by?
How many people were executed during red terror?
What’s was Cheka renamed to?
GPU in 1922, OGPU in 1923
When did Russia become a one party state?
1918-1922, SR/Menshevik/anarchists were removed and deported.
What’s was the Kronstadt mutiny?
Sailors of the Kronstadt naval base rebelled in march 1921. This is because ‘war communism’ has taken a toll on them.
What did the Kronstadt mutiny show?
How much support the Bolsheviks lost due ton their strict regime.
Response to Kronstadt mutiny?
- soldiers were denounced as ‘whites’
- soldiers weren’t trying to overthrow the revolution, wanted changes
- red army attack
- sailors fought back but were defeated
Reality of communist party
Wasn’t democratic, they had all the power. Criticism not allowed.
Who were the first members of politburo?
Lenin, Zinoviev, kamenev, Trotsky and stalin
When did Russia reorganise into USSR?
Why was war communism introduced?
New government wanted to end capitalism, and that the army had enough food supply
There was fixed prices so that it was low enough for army to our chase, peasants weren’t happy and were reluctant
What happened to peasants that didn’t give grain?
Cheka would forcibly take it
Why did war communism fail?
- peasants destroyed their crops, Cheka couldn’t seize
- food shortages
- peasant uprising
What did NEP do?
- reintroduce money
- small businesses did well, private businesses could employ
- no grain seized, had to pay taxes
Why did some communists disagree with NEP?
Betrayed their principles, Trotsky was against it. More suicides in Bolshevik party.
What was the scissor crisis?
Food prices affordable but factor-made goods weren’t
When was NEP introduced?
When was Zhenotdel set up?
1919, as an organisation to improve the rights and position of women
When was abortion legalised?
When could women in a relationship own property?
Why did the economic position of women under NEP worsen?
Women’s rights weren’t seen as a priority by leading members
When was free education introduced in Russia?
What was RAPP?
The Russian Association of Proletarian Writers, had control over censorship from 1925. Promoted ‘socialist realism’