Flashcards in States of matter Deck (30):
What's Kinetic energy?
An energy object contains because of it's motion.
What's Kinetic theory?
All matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion.
Three assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases?
Particles in gas considered to be small, hard spheres with insignificant volume.
Motion of the particles are rapid, constant, and random.
All collisions between particles in gas are elastic.
What's Gas pressure?
Results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object.
How does kinetic theory explain gas pressure?
Result of billions of rapidly moving particles in a gas simultaneously colliding with an object.
Empty space with no particle one no pressure.
What's Atmospheric pressure?
Collisions of atoms and molecules in air with object.
It decreases as the elevation increases.
Device used to measure atmospheric pressure.
Represents small amount of pressure.
Relationship between the temperature in kelvin and the averaged kinetic energy of particle?
Kelvin temp of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy or the particles of the substance.
What factors determine the physical properties of a liquid?
The interplay between the disruptive motions of particles Ina liquid and the attractions among the particles determines the physical properties of a liquid.
Conversion of a liquid to gas or vapor.
When this conversion occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling.
What's the relationship between evaporation and kinetic energy?
During evaporation only those molecules with certain minimum kinetic energy can escape from the surface of a liquid.
What's Vapor pressure?
Measure of the force exerted by gas above a liquid.
When can dynamic equilibrium exist between liquid and it's vapor?
The rate of evaporation of liquid equals the rate of condensation of vapor.
Under what conditions does boiling occur?
When liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout a liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, liquid begins to boil.
What's Boiling point?
Temperature which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to external pressure of the liquid.
What's Normal boiling point?
Defined as the boiling point if a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa
What's Melting point?
Temperature at which solid changes into liquid.
What's Freezing point?
Temperature at which liquid changes into solid.
Particles arranged orderly, repeating three dimensional pattern called crystal lattice.
What determined the shape of a crystal?
It reflects the arrangement if the particles within a solid.
What's Unit cell?
Smallest group of particles within a crystal tags retains the geometric shape of a crystal.
The change from solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid state.
When can sublimation occur?
In solid with vapor pressures that excess atmospheric pressure at or near room temperature.
What's Phase diagram?
Gives conditions of temperature and pressure at which substance exists as solid liquid or gas.
What's Triple point?
Describes the only set of conditions at which all three phases can exist in equilibrium with one another.
How do chemists use balances chemical equations?
Calculate how much reactant is needed or how much prosecutor will be formed in a reaction.