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CAM201: Anat/Histo Prac 3 > Station 4: Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Station 4: Larynx Deck (26)
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What are the major functions of the larynx?

Produces sound

Acts as a conduit of air from the laryngopharynx to the trachea

Closes off the airways during swallowing


What are the 3 paired cartilages of the larynx?

The Arytenoids, Corniculates, Cuneiforms


What are the 3 unpaired cartilages of the larynx?

Epiglottis, Thyroid, Cricoid


What is the aditus? What are its' boundaries?

Aditus is the inlet to the larynx from the laryngopharynx.

Anteriorly: Free edge of the epiglottis

Laterally: Aryepiglottic folds

Posteriorly: Arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages


What are the names of the subdivisions of the larynx? What are their boundaries?

Supraglottic cavity:

Extends from the aditus (superiorly) to the glottis (between the true vocal folds)

Infraglottic Cavity:

Extends from the glottic (superiorly) to the first tracheal ring at the end of the larynx (C6/7)


What are the names of the cavities 1) above the vestibular folds, 2) between the vestibular folds and the true vocal folds, 3) Below the true vocal folds?

1) Vestibule (of the supraglottic cavity)

2) The ventricle

3) Infraglottic cavity


What is the rima vestibuli?

The space between the vestibular folds (false vocal folds).


What is the Rima glottidis?

Space between the true vocal folds


What is the glottis?

The combination of the rima glottidis and the true vocal folds themselves


What are the true vocal folds attached to?

The arytenoid cartilages (posteriorly) and the thyroid cartilage (anteriorly)


What muscle is the true vocal fold composed of? and what is its epithelium?

Vocalis muscle (thyroarytenoid muscle). Edges of the true vocal folds are stratified squamous epithelium (as they open and close, thus get damaged more)


Which muscle adduct the true vocal folds?

Lateral Cricoarytenoids and Transverse Arytenoids


Which muscles abduct the vocal folds?

Posterior Cricoarytenoids


What function does the vocalis muscle serve?

Adjusts tension on the vocal folds


Lowering and Raising the pharynx - which muscles?

Suprahyoid and Infrahyoid muscles


What are the vocal fold's resting position?

Abducted, to allow breathing


What does the cricothyroid muscle do?

Tilts thyroid anteriorly


What does the thyroarytenoid muscle do?

Shortens the vocal folds, decreasing tension, and lowering pitch


What does vocalis muscle do?

Limits the vibration of the vocal folds, affecting the pitch of the voice


What muscles help to narrow the laryngeal inlet to prevent food or drink entering the larynx?

Oblique Arytenoid, Aryepiglottic, Thyroepiglottic muscles


Which cranial neve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the larynx?

Which 2 specific branches of this nerve supply the larynx?

Vagus: CN X

The L & R Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves

Superior Laryngeal Nerve

All muscles supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve

Except cricothyroid which is innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve


Which nerves, and what areas of the larynx, provide sensory innervation?

Everything above the true vocal fold = superior laryngeal nerve

Everything below the true vocal fold = Recurrent Laryngeal nerve


Why are there two types of epithelia on the epiglottis? What are they?

The inferior portion of the epiglottis is respiratory epithelium.

The superior surface is stratified squamous.

This is because the superior surface comes in contact with swallowed food and liquid, as the epiglottis shuts over the larynx to prevent food entry into the larynx. As such, this surface is prone to abrasion from swallowed substances, thus has adapted a more 'protective' stratified squamous epithelium.


What type of gland(s) is present in the lamina propria of the respiratory mucosa?

Mucous secreting acini with serous demilunes


What type of tissue forms the central support of the epiglottis?

Elastic cartilage


Explain the functional reason for the different epithelial coverings of the true and false vocal cords

Stratified squamous epithelium covers the true vocal cord where they meet in the middle of the glottis. This is because they constantly open and close and require a more durable epithelium than the respiratory epithelium