# Statistics for Dummies Flashcards

What % constitutes a high response rate to a survey?

the number of respondents divided by the number of surveys sent

70%

———-

Some statisticians will settle for nothing less.

Rarely does it get that high, but the lower the response rate the less credible the results

A 20% (say) rate could easily mean that more people in the population feel differently than the respondents.

In the research statistics process, there are 6 main steps. Starting with:

1) what is the question to be answered?

2) design a study

3) determine the group of people to be studied

…

What are the next 3?

4) collect the data

5) organise, summarise and analyse the data

6) draw conclusions from the summaries and graphs to answer the question

What is a ‘Parameter’?

Usually we only have a statistic from a sample, which is then said to ‘estimate the parameter

What is a ‘Statistic’?

data from a population is a ‘census’, and data summarised to a stat from a census is called a ‘parameter’ because it refers to the population.

What are ‘Categorical Data’?

Sometimes categories are recorded using numbers, like 1 for male and 2 for female but they don’t have any specific meaning

What are ‘Numerical Data’?

Also referred to as Quantitative or measurement data.

Examples: Height, Weight, IQ, Blood pressure

What is a ‘standard score’

Like +2 or -1

What is the ‘central limit theorem?

The ‘crown jewel’ of all statistics’

What are Z-Values

The distribution is then called a ‘standard normal distribution’ or ‘Z-Distribution’

What is a ‘Standard Normal Distribution’

It is the Z-Distribution

Useful for determining percentiles, and what data fall between two values

What is a ‘Z Distribution’?

It is the ‘Standard Normal Distribution’

Useful for determining percentiles, and what data fall between two values

a single sentence that describes an ‘Experiment’

And often their environment.

The purpose is to pinpoint a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables (drug vs health or placebo vs health)

What is a ‘blind experiment’

Where bias is controlled because the subjects do not know if they are in the control group or the treatment group

What is a ‘double blind experiment’?

Where bias is controlled on the part of both patients and researchers because none of them know

What is the purpose of sample statistics

To produce an ‘estimate’ of a population parameter