Statistics Lecture 1 Flashcards

1
Q

Statistics

A

The science of assembling, classifying, tabulating, and analyzing data of a numerical nature to present significant information about a given subject.

2
Q

Main branches of statistics

A
• Descriptive statistics
• Inferential statistics
3
Q

Descriptive statistics

A

a way of summarizing data from a population or a sample.

4
Q

Inferential statistics

A

Comparison of data, extrapolation…

5
Q

Data

A

A collection of information. A set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

6
Q

Types of data

A
• Qualitative
• Quantative
7
Q

Quantitative data

A

Numeric date

8
Q

Qualitative data

A

Non-numeric date

9
Q

Observation

A

Entity whose characteristics we measure

10
Q

Measurement

A

Assigning numbers to observations according to pre-set rules

11
Q

Variable

A

A measurement characteristic that can have various values or levels

12
Q

Types of variables

A
• Qualitative(categorical) = Non numerical
• Quantitative = Numerical
13
Q

Types of quantitative variables

A
• Discrete
• Continuos
14
Q

Types of qualitative variables

A
• Binary
• Nominal
• Ordinal
15
Q

Continuos:

A
• Quantitative
• Not restricted to taking specified values
16
Q

Discrete:

A
• Quantitative
• Can have only certain values (usually whole numbers)
17
Q

Binary:

A

Only 2 possible values (usually : 1/0 or Yes/No

18
Q

Nominal:

A
• Qualitative
• Categorical with no order
19
Q

Ordinal:

A
• Qualitative
• Non numerical but with a specific order
20
Q

Population

A

is an entire group of observations that have at least one common characteristic

• Monkey Population St. Kitts
• Female monkey population in St. Kitts
• Monkeys in a research facility
21
Q

Sample

A

is a group of elements selected from a population

22
Q

A characteristic of a population

A

Parameter

23
Q

Characteristic of a sample

A

Statistic

24
Q

Absolute frequency

A

Number of observations

25
Q

Relative frequency

A

Proportion of observations