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Flashcards in Stem cells Deck (24):

What is the definition of a stem cell?

An unscpecialised cell with the ability to self renew and differentiate into multiple cell types


Embryonic stem cell are ****potent

Adult stem cells are ****potent




Of the epiblast and the hypoblast whihc gives rise to the adult cells?

epiblast --> all adult cells


Where do embryonic stem cells come from?

The inner cell mass (small number hence must be amplified)


What is the culture we put stem cells in to make them divide?



Feeder layer


Selective media is then used to make them divide into a particular cell type (knowledge lacking on conditions needed to make some cells types)


What is stargardt disease?

Macular degeneration (juvenile)


What is dry AMD?

Macular degeneration (age related)


What are the two most common causes of blindness?

Stargardt disease and dry AMD


How do stargardt disease and dry AMD cause blindness?

Degeneration of the RPE at the back of the eye


50% had vision improvements with stem cell therapy


What are the three pros of embryonic stem cells?

The cells are totipotent

they can divide indefinitely in feeder layer

They cells are young (telomere length)


What are the five cons of embryonic stem cells?

Hard to get hold of (less so in animals)

Amplification takes a long time

sometimes differentiate wrong

Sometimes get teratomas developing

Ethical issues


Where are stem cells found in the adult?

Pretty much all tissues!

Needed so that the tissue can grow and repair

e.g. in intestine, at the bottom of the villi is the stem cell layer. Cells  mature as they go upwards


What are the cons of using adult stem cells versus embryonic

Slow growing-hard to generate enough cells to be useful

Limited potential, and we don't really know how to make cells divide into the cells we want!


Give an example of a stem cell type that is hard to harvest in adults?

Brain stem cells



What are the pros of adult stem cell collection?

Ability to harvest them for an individual reduces rejection

Less ethical debate

Less risk of teratoma formation as limited eventualities


Give two examples of transpoants that are currently available which use stem cells?

Bone marrow transplant

Trachea transplant


What are iPS cells?

Induced plurpipotent stem cells

Currently mainly harvested from tskin fibroblasts which are then reprogrammed


What are the pros of making iPS cells?

Easy to amplify

Make all cell types

No ethical concerns



What are the cons of iPS cells?

Don't quite share all the properties of embryonic cells..

They have shorter telomere length and different gene expression

iPS cells also seem to have higher death rates and problems with premature ageing



What is the main field in which stem cells are used in the veterinary field?

Musculoskeletal use of mesenchymal stem cells


What can mesenchymal stem cells make?

Osteoblasts, Chondroblasts, Adipoblasts, Tendenoblasts and Myoblasts

(i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, tendon and muscle)


Where do we harvest stem cells from in animals for treatment?

Bone marrow from sternebrae (horses-VetCell)

Adipose tissue-small animals (vet-Stem) however many fewer MSC but easier to access


what are the side effects of stem cell injection into tendons?

Surprisingly few

Don't seem to get cells differentiating into things they shouldn't as they have been pre-differentiated

Some swelling at the injection site but does go down

Cancer link? Not proven


Why is it useful to store cells from the umbilical cord?

They may be totipotent

Treatment application in Leukemias etc?