Flashcards in Stroke Deck (37):
In Canada a stroke occurs every how often?
How many Canadians are currently living with the effects of stroke?
What is a Cerebrovascular Accident?
- Sudden & convulsive onset of a focal neurologic deficit
- Syndrome that results from vascular disease of the brain
what happens to blood vessels during stroke?
Blood flow is disrupted temporarily then neurons die due to oxygen death
What % of strokes that result in death within 30 days?
Arterial blood supply to brain?
2 main arteries supply front & middle of brain
- Carotid supplies front & middle of brain
- ACA (anterior cerebral artery)
- MCA (medial cerebral artery)
- PCA = brainstem & posterior)
Circle of Willis?
The communicatory artery that helps join the ACA and MCA together
If stroke 2 days ago what are his signs & symptoms?
Vision loss - Posterior Cerebral Artery (occipital lobe)
Loss of balance & coordination - Posterior Cerebral Artery (cerebellum)
U/E & L/E weakness - both Anterior & Middle Cerebral Artery (frontal lobe)
What factors may cause stroke?
High BP (hypertension)
Diabetic (high blood sugar)
High cholesterol (bad LDL/athlesclerosis)
Lack of exercise
Ethnicity (first nations, Asian, African)
Diet (high fat & sodium)
Irregular heart beat
- heart is quivering rapidly (fibrillation), instead of normal & synchronized
- causes blood to pool in atria which clots
Reduced blood = tissue death = ischemic stroke
What % of people who have recovered from a stroke will have another within 5 years?
due to not changing lifestyle/risk factors
- blood vessels stay the same & progressively worsen = develop a clot
Need to control with meds
3 types of stroke?
1. TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK:
Mini stroke - temporary lack of blood flow
Lack of blood flow
Transient Ischemic Attack?
- usually goes away within 24hrs
A warning for immediate action
If no treatment 80% have another & 1/3 have a major stroke within 5 yrs
To be classified as a stroke, the focal neurological deficit must be present at least 24 hours and take longer than 3 weeks to resolve?
(if less it's a TIA)
The 5 signs of stroke?
Most common type of stroke?
- Blood vessel is occluded
- Loss of blood flow
- Is Thrombotic or Embolic
Brain tissue deprived of oxygen and glucose
Water moves from blood to surrounding tissue
Within minutes, lasting 3-4 days
Mild to moderately ischemic due to other areas coming in giving it blood flow
Due to atherosclerosis
Plaque develops at bifurcations and curvatures
Most common in: internal carotid and vertebral arteries
Platelets produce clots around plaque
Travelling clot in bloodstream, lodges in a vessel and obstructs blood flow
The most common types of cerebral emboli are cardiogenic (heart origin) in nature
Fragments from a thrombus become dislodged and enter cerebral circulation
Middle cerebral artery most commonly involved
How long before irreversible ISCHEMIC damage occurs?
If blood flow to ischemic area is restored in 1 - 3 hrs
Need to get treatment right away!!!!
What percentage of strokes are Hemorrhagic?
2 Types of Hemorrhagic Stroke?
1. SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE:
Uncontrolled bleeding on brain surface, in area between the brain and the skull.
2. INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE:
Occurs when an artery deep in the brain ruptures
Why higher death rate with Hemorrhagic Stroke?
If severe blood can move into different spaces & prognosis is not as good
Intracerebral vs Subarachnoid?
Intracerebral = non-traumatic rupture
Subarachnoid = Seen with head injury/trauma & more likely to bleed more & spinal fluid obstructed
Stroke costs the Canadian economy how much money per year?
3.6 Billion Dollars
***Brain Hemisphere Specialization?***
Language (spoken and written), math ability, logical problem solving, scientific skills, reasoning
Spatial orientation, visual perceptual skills, spatial analysis, artistic awareness, ability recognize faces and musical ability, insight, imagination, interpreting information from the environment and own body
Total or severe loss of voluntary muscle contraction (unilateral)
Mild or partial loss of voluntary muscle contraction (unilateral)
Disturbance of the comprehension and expression of language
- One of the most severe types of communication disorders
- Our speaker has this
- Impaired both with incoming & outgoing speech (understanding & speaking)
Impairment of the capacity to plan and execute movement, despite having the physical ability to do so
Loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss
- Very effortful
- Broken up
- Can read/comprehend but can't write
They know they don't make sense
Problem understanding AND processing words
- Can speak fluently but have trouble making a proper sentence
- Non-sensicle at times
Usually not aware they have this dysfunction
Decrease in muscle tone
- Info not coming to the muscles
- Replaced by progressive increased tone
- Excitation of motor neurons