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Neurological Pathologies (Kristy) > Stroke > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stroke Deck (37):
1

In Canada a stroke occurs every how often?

10 mins

2

How many Canadians are currently living with the effects of stroke?

315,000

3

What is a Cerebrovascular Accident?

Stroke

- Sudden & convulsive onset of a focal neurologic deficit
- Syndrome that results from vascular disease of the brain

4

what happens to blood vessels during stroke?

Blood flow is disrupted temporarily then neurons die due to oxygen death

5

What % of strokes that result in death within 30 days?

30%

6

Arterial blood supply to brain?

2 main arteries supply front & middle of brain
- Carotid supplies front & middle of brain

- ACA (anterior cerebral artery)
- MCA (medial cerebral artery)

- PCA = brainstem & posterior)

7

Circle of Willis?

The communicatory artery that helps join the ACA and MCA together

8

If stroke 2 days ago what are his signs & symptoms?

Vision loss - Posterior Cerebral Artery (occipital lobe)
Loss of balance & coordination - Posterior Cerebral Artery (cerebellum)
U/E & L/E weakness - both Anterior & Middle Cerebral Artery (frontal lobe)

9

What factors may cause stroke?

High BP (hypertension)
High stress
Smoker
Diabetic (high blood sugar)
Alcoholic
High cholesterol (bad LDL/athlesclerosis)
Genetics
Age (older)
Lack of exercise
Gender (male)
Ethnicity (first nations, Asian, African)
Diet (high fat & sodium)

10

Atrial Fibrillation?

Risk factor

Irregular heart beat
- heart is quivering rapidly (fibrillation), instead of normal & synchronized

- causes blood to pool in atria which clots

Reduced blood = tissue death = ischemic stroke

11

What % of people who have recovered from a stroke will have another within 5 years?

25%

due to not changing lifestyle/risk factors
- blood vessels stay the same & progressively worsen = develop a clot


Need to control with meds

12

3 types of stroke?

1. TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK:
Mini stroke - temporary lack of blood flow

**2. ISCHEMIC:
Lack of blood flow

**3. HEMORRHAGIC:
Bleeding

13

Transient Ischemic Attack?

Temporary
- usually goes away within 24hrs

A warning for immediate action

If no treatment 80% have another & 1/3 have a major stroke within 5 yrs

14

To be classified as a stroke, the focal neurological deficit must be present at least 24 hours and take longer than 3 weeks to resolve?

TRUE!!!!

(if less it's a TIA)

15

The 5 signs of stroke?

WEAKNESS

TROUBLE SPEAKING

VISION PROBLEMS

HEADACHE

DIZZINESS

16

Most common type of stroke?

Ischemic stroke
80-85%
- Blood vessel is occluded
- Loss of blood flow

- Is Thrombotic or Embolic

17

Cerebral infarction?

Brain tissue deprived of oxygen and glucose

18

Brain edema?

Water moves from blood to surrounding tissue

Within minutes, lasting 3-4 days

19

Ischemic Prenumbra?

Mild to moderately ischemic due to other areas coming in giving it blood flow

20

Thrombotic Strokes?

Due to atherosclerosis

Plaque develops at bifurcations and curvatures

Most common in: internal carotid and vertebral arteries

Platelets produce clots around plaque

21

Embolic Strokes?

Travelling clot in bloodstream, lodges in a vessel and obstructs blood flow

The most common types of cerebral emboli are cardiogenic (heart origin) in nature

Fragments from a thrombus become dislodged and enter cerebral circulation

Middle cerebral artery most commonly involved

22

How long before irreversible ISCHEMIC damage occurs?

If blood flow to ischemic area is restored in 1 - 3 hrs

Need to get treatment right away!!!!

23

What percentage of strokes are Hemorrhagic?

20%

24

2 Types of Hemorrhagic Stroke?

1. SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE:
Uncontrolled bleeding on brain surface, in area between the brain and the skull.

2. INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE:
Occurs when an artery deep in the brain ruptures

25

Why higher death rate with Hemorrhagic Stroke?

If severe blood can move into different spaces & prognosis is not as good

26

Intracerebral vs Subarachnoid?

Intracerebral = non-traumatic rupture

Subarachnoid = Seen with head injury/trauma & more likely to bleed more & spinal fluid obstructed

27

Stroke costs the Canadian economy how much money per year?

3.6 Billion Dollars

28

***Brain Hemisphere Specialization?***

LEFT SIDE:
Language (spoken and written), math ability, logical problem solving, scientific skills, reasoning

RIGHT SIDE:
Spatial orientation, visual perceptual skills, spatial analysis, artistic awareness, ability recognize faces and musical ability, insight, imagination, interpreting information from the environment and own body

29

Hemiplegia?

Total or severe loss of voluntary muscle contraction (unilateral)

30

Hemiparesis?

Mild or partial loss of voluntary muscle contraction (unilateral)

31

Aphasia?

Disturbance of the comprehension and expression of language

- One of the most severe types of communication disorders
- Our speaker has this
- Impaired both with incoming & outgoing speech (understanding & speaking)

32

Apraxia?

Impairment of the capacity to plan and execute movement, despite having the physical ability to do so

33

Agnosia?

Loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss

34

Broca's?

Difficulty expressing

- Very effortful
- Broken up
- Can read/comprehend but can't write

They know they don't make sense

35

Werneke's?

Problem understanding AND processing words

- Can speak fluently but have trouble making a proper sentence
- Non-sensicle at times

Usually not aware they have this dysfunction

36

Hypotonia?

Decrease in muscle tone
- Info not coming to the muscles

- Replaced by progressive increased tone
- Excitation of motor neurons

37

Hypertonia?

Increased muscle tone
- We don’t get the inhibition & is on all the time

- Disruption of motor neuron inhibitory influence
- Spasticity, clonus, rigidity