Flashcards in Vascular Disease Deck (55):
- Pumps about 100,000 times per day
- Pumps about 2.5 billion times in a 70 year lifetime
- Pumps about 76,000 litres of blood per day through 96,000 km of blood vessels in the human body
The only Artery in the body that carries Deoxygenated blood?
The only Vein in the body that carries Oxygenated blood?
Artery -> Vein (in order)?
The space blood travels through
Sends message to contract or dialate but it always recoils back
Atherosclerosis (plaque) affect on artery/vein?
It is no longer smooth for blood to run through
= higher pressure & causes more damage to the wall lining
Most important artery?
Left Coronary (serves blood to left side)
If blockage in left coronary artery left side won't get blood & will have a serious heart attack or sudden death
– not much we can do if left side cannot pump blood to body
'Circle of Willis'?
Middle Cerebral Artery (circle shaped)
- Common area for strokes
Why are Abdomen Arteries so big?
All blood enters left ventricle & the pressure is huge
- Abdominal artery has to be bigger to stand this volume & pressure
Arteriosclerosis vs Atherosclerosis?
Arteriosclerosis = Hardening of artery
- A group of diseases
Atherosclerosis = Plaque inside artery
- One disease of a group
If blocked can cause heart attack
Inflammation can contribute to wall damage
If blood pressure stays high this can also damage inner lining
Atherosclerosis (plaque) & Calcification?
We don’t often find out until we are 75% occluded
A blood clot
- Starts to balloon out causing a bleed
Risk factors for developing Atherosclerosis (plaque)?
Gender (males - but after menopause ratio is same)
Ethnicity (African, First Nation, Asian)
'Hypertensive Heart Disease'?
Heart problems caused by persistently elevated blood pressure
Heart problems include:
- Coronary artery disease
- Thickening of heart muscle (hypertrophy)
- Congestive Heart Failure
How is blood pressure regulated?
- Blood flow
- Peripheral vascular resistance
Complications of 'Hypertension'?
- Elastic tissue becomes fibrous
- Decreased extensibility
- Decreased tissue perfusion
- Increased resistance to flow
- Development of other diseases
Management of 'Hypertensive Vascular Disease'?
You pee out the sodium
Slow your heart rate
Reduce vassal constriction (open up blood vessel = less pressure)
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS:
Slow movement of calcium into heart cells & blood vessel wall (makes it easier for heart to pump & widens blood vessels)
'Peripheral Artery Disease'?
Artery disease anywhere outside of the heart
- caused by atherosclerosis (plaque)
'Popliteal Artery Disease' signs/symptoms?
Bilateral foot pain (plantar surface), worse when walking
Poor arterial blood supply signs/symptoms?
Aching, numbness, fatigue, burning distal to blockage (thigh, legs)
Occurs during activity (when blood supply is increased) and alleviated with rest
OTA/PTA role ICU?
- Check skin breakdown
- Lung hygiene
- Bed mobility (if not use lift)
OTA/PTA role surgical ward?
- Pain control
- Reduce risk contractures
- Adaptive devices ADL's
OTA/PTA role outpatient?
- Mobility in community
- Foot support (bracing
- Gait training
High cholesterol & high triglyceride levels
- probably too much LDL not enough HDL (bad fats in the blood)
Bulge or ballooning (50% or more) in artery wall
- cause = trauma, congenital, atherosclerosis (plaque)
Can be artery or vein
Most common in the aorta (usually stomach, brain rarely)
- Due to high pressure
Thoracic & Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
Thoracic = above diaphragm
Abdominal = below diaphragm
May not have symptoms until rupture
(+5cm = Urgent medical care!!)
- Abdominal heart beat
- Deep pain in abdomen, jaw, back, neck, chest
- Paraplegia of the limbs & kidney failure
'Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm' rehab goals?
To remove the oxygen (breathe room air)
Transfer independently (a good early goal = before walking)
- smart goal = how long & how many days (eg. 20 mins in 2 days)
Can be anywhere in brain:
(eg. popliteal, carotid)
Mostly in thigh or leg:
'Hypertension' blood pressure reading?
140/90 mm Hg
Signs of 'Peripheral Arterial insufficiency'?
- Lower leg pain
- Lower leg mottling or pallor
- Lower leg tingling
'Deep Vein Thrombosis' (DVT)?
Partial or complete occlusion of a vein by a thrombus (blood clot)
'Venous Stasis' - Localized (to that area)
'Pulmonary Embolism' (PE)?
One or more pulmonary arteries in your lungs is blocked
'Embolis' - Travelling clot
(=no blood flow to lungs)
'Venous Thrombosis' risk factors?
- History of thrombus (clot)
- Extensive pelvic, abdominal surgery or major orthopedic surgery (hip, knee replacements)
- Genetic and lifestyle (smoking)
Becomes 'Embolis' if dislodges (travels)
Reasons for 'Thrombus' (clot) formation?
- Venous stasis (localized in an area)
- Hypercoagulability (blood to coagulates faster than normal)
- Injury to venous wall
What happens to a 'Thrombus'?
- Releases to form a 'pulmonary embolism'
We need to medicate most people so blood runs freely
DVT & PE signs/symptoms?
LEG & CALF:
- dull ache & pain
- tightness & swelling
- pitting edema & warmth
- Possible sudden death
- Chest pain
- Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
- Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
- Hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
- Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
Medical Management of DVT & PE?
- Prophylactic anticoagulants (blood thinners)
- Compression stockings (to help return the blood)
- Pneumatic pressure device (air boot if can't do ankle pumps)
Which contains the lowest pressure?
Which has a thick Tunica Media?
Which carries blood towards the heart?
Which is the largest lumen (blood reservoir)?
Which are the smallest blood vessels?
Which is the site of nutrient exchange?
Prevents backflow as blood travels to heart
Skeletal Muscles job?
Press against veins forcing blood back towards heart
Respiratory Pump job?
Creates a sucking effect to assist venous return to heart
What is happening during Systole?
Left ventricle contracts to push blood out
What is happening during Diastole?
Left ventricle relaxes & fills with blood
Strategies to help lower blood pressure?
- Low fat, low salt, diet
- Decrease Stress
- Lose weight
The 5 'P's signs/symptoms?
5. Paresthesia (pins & needles)