Vascular Disease Flashcards Preview

Neurological Pathologies (Kristy) > Vascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vascular Disease Deck (55):
1

The heart?

- Pumps about 100,000 times per day
- Pumps about 2.5 billion times in a 70 year lifetime
- Pumps about 76,000 litres of blood per day through 96,000 km of blood vessels in the human body

2

The only Artery in the body that carries Deoxygenated blood?

Pulmonary artery

3

The only Vein in the body that carries Oxygenated blood?

Pulmonary vein

4

Artery -> Vein (in order)?

Artery
Arteriole
Capillary
Venule
Vein

5

'Lumen'?

The space blood travels through

6

Smooth Muscle?

Sends message to contract or dialate but it always recoils back

7

Atherosclerosis (plaque) affect on artery/vein?

It is no longer smooth for blood to run through
= higher pressure & causes more damage to the wall lining

8

Most important artery?

Left Coronary (serves blood to left side)

If blockage in left coronary artery left side won't get blood & will have a serious heart attack or sudden death
– not much we can do if left side cannot pump blood to body

9

'Circle of Willis'?

Middle Cerebral Artery (circle shaped)

- Common area for strokes

10

Why are Abdomen Arteries so big?

All blood enters left ventricle & the pressure is huge
- Abdominal artery has to be bigger to stand this volume & pressure

11

Arteriosclerosis vs Atherosclerosis?

Arteriosclerosis = Hardening of artery
- A group of diseases

Atherosclerosis = Plaque inside artery
- One disease of a group

12

Atherosclerosis (plaque)?

If blocked can cause heart attack

Inflammation can contribute to wall damage

If blood pressure stays high this can also damage inner lining

13

Atherosclerosis (plaque) & Calcification?

We don’t often find out until we are 75% occluded

14

'Thrombus'?

A blood clot

15

'Aneurysm'?

A bleed

- Starts to balloon out causing a bleed

16

Risk factors for developing Atherosclerosis (plaque)?

Hereditary
Age
Gender (males - but after menopause ratio is same)
Ethnicity (African, First Nation, Asian)

17

'Hypertensive Heart Disease'?

Heart problems caused by persistently elevated blood pressure

Heart problems include:
- Coronary artery disease
- Thickening of heart muscle (hypertrophy)
- Congestive Heart Failure

18

How is blood pressure regulated?

- Blood flow
- Peripheral vascular resistance

19

Complications of 'Hypertension'?

- Elastic tissue becomes fibrous
- Decreased extensibility
- Decreased tissue perfusion
- Increased resistance to flow
- Development of other diseases

20

Management of 'Hypertensive Vascular Disease'?

DIURETICS:
You pee out the sodium

BETA BLOCKERS:
Slow your heart rate

ACE INHIBITORS:
Reduce vassal constriction (open up blood vessel = less pressure)

CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS:
Slow movement of calcium into heart cells & blood vessel wall (makes it easier for heart to pump & widens blood vessels)

21

'Peripheral Artery Disease'?

Artery disease anywhere outside of the heart

- caused by atherosclerosis (plaque)

22

'Popliteal Artery Disease' signs/symptoms?

Bilateral foot pain (plantar surface), worse when walking

23

Poor arterial blood supply signs/symptoms?

Aching, numbness, fatigue, burning distal to blockage (thigh, legs)

Occurs during activity (when blood supply is increased) and alleviated with rest

24

OTA/PTA role ICU?

- Check skin breakdown
- PROM
- Lung hygiene
- Bed mobility (if not use lift)

25

OTA/PTA role surgical ward?

- Pain control
- Splinting/bracing
- Mobility
- Reduce risk contractures
- Adaptive devices ADL's

26

OTA/PTA role outpatient?

- Mobility in community
- Foot support (bracing
- Gait training

27

'Hyperlipidemia'?

High cholesterol & high triglyceride levels

- probably too much LDL not enough HDL (bad fats in the blood)

28

'Aneurysm'?

Bulge or ballooning (50% or more) in artery wall
- cause = trauma, congenital, atherosclerosis (plaque)

Can be artery or vein

Most common in the aorta (usually stomach, brain rarely)
- Due to high pressure

29

Thoracic & Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

Thoracic = above diaphragm
Abdominal = below diaphragm

May not have symptoms until rupture
(+5cm = Urgent medical care!!)

SYMPTOMS:
- Abdominal heart beat
- Deep pain in abdomen, jaw, back, neck, chest
- Paraplegia of the limbs & kidney failure

30

'Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm' rehab goals?

GOAL:
To remove the oxygen (breathe room air)

GOAL:
Transfer independently (a good early goal = before walking)

GOAL:
Walking independently
- smart goal = how long & how many days (eg. 20 mins in 2 days)

31

'Cerebral Aneurysm'?

Can be anywhere in brain:
(eg. popliteal, carotid)

32

'Peripheral Aneurysm'?

Mostly in thigh or leg:
- Carotid
- Popliteal
- Femoral

33

'Hypertension' blood pressure reading?

140/90 mm Hg

34

Signs of 'Peripheral Arterial insufficiency'?

- Lower leg pain
- Lower leg mottling or pallor
- Lower leg tingling

35

'Deep Vein Thrombosis' (DVT)?

Partial or complete occlusion of a vein by a thrombus (blood clot)

'Venous Stasis' - Localized (to that area)

36

'Pulmonary Embolism' (PE)?

One or more pulmonary arteries in your lungs is blocked

'Embolis' - Travelling clot
(=no blood flow to lungs)

37

'Venous Thrombosis' risk factors?

- History of thrombus (clot)
- Extensive pelvic, abdominal surgery or major orthopedic surgery (hip, knee replacements)
- Genetic and lifestyle (smoking)

Becomes 'Embolis' if dislodges (travels)

38

Reasons for 'Thrombus' (clot) formation?

- Venous stasis (localized in an area)
- Hypercoagulability (blood to coagulates faster than normal)
- Injury to venous wall

39

What happens to a 'Thrombus'?

- Dissolves
- Enlargement
- Releases to form a 'pulmonary embolism'

We need to medicate most people so blood runs freely

40

DVT & PE signs/symptoms?

LEG & CALF:
- dull ache & pain
- tightness & swelling
- pitting edema & warmth

OTHER:
- Possible sudden death
- Chest pain
- Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
- Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
- Hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
- Anxiety
- Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
- Cough

41

Medical Management of DVT & PE?

- Prophylactic anticoagulants (blood thinners)
- Compression stockings (to help return the blood)
- Pneumatic pressure device (air boot if can't do ankle pumps)
- MOBILITY

42

Which contains the lowest pressure?

Veins

43

Which has a thick Tunica Media?

Artery

44

Which carries blood towards the heart?

Veins

45

Which is the largest lumen (blood reservoir)?

Veins

46

Which are the smallest blood vessels?

Capillaries

47

Which is the site of nutrient exchange?

Capilaries

48

Valves job?

Prevents backflow as blood travels to heart

49

Skeletal Muscles job?

Press against veins forcing blood back towards heart

50

Respiratory Pump job?

Creates a sucking effect to assist venous return to heart

51

What is happening during Systole?

Left ventricle contracts to push blood out

52

What is happening during Diastole?

Left ventricle relaxes & fills with blood

53

Strategies to help lower blood pressure?

- Exercise
- Medication
- Low fat, low salt, diet
- Decrease Stress
- Lose weight

54

The 5 'P's signs/symptoms?

1. Pulselessness
2. Pallor
3. Pain
4. Paralysis
5. Paresthesia (pins & needles)

55

Steps detailing Atherosclerosis (plaque)?

1. Wall of artery is damaged
2. LDL cholesterol gets into artery wall
3. Body tries to consume LDL & develops foam cells that get embedded in the vessel wall
4. Plaque develops (fatty streaks surrounded by a fibrous capsule)
5. Plaque expands into elastic layer of artery
6. Artery can no longer expand as plaque enlarges causing blood vessel to narrow
7. Blood is squeezed through this smaller opening which is now under high pressure