structural cardiac disorders Flashcards Preview

patho final > structural cardiac disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in structural cardiac disorders Deck (57)
Loading flashcards...

ductus venosus

structure in liver which allows most blood to bypass the liver and enter directly into the inferior vena cava


foramen ovale

opening between atria allowing some fetal blood to pass from right side of heart to left, bypassing right ventricle and lungs


ductus arteriosus

between the pulm artery and aorta which allows blood to bypass the lungs and enter directly into descending aorta


which side of the heart is more oxygenated and what %

left side- blood is returning from the lungs (about 95%)
right side- (72-80%)


atria pressure

thin walled chambers, low pressure


ventricle pressure

thicker walled with high pressure


left ventricle has what

the greatest presssure because it must pump blood into the high pressure systemic circulation


what is a cardiac shunt

an abnormal blood flow through the heart or great vessle


left to right shunt

oxygenated blood flow from the left side of heart goes to the right side, going through the lungs again


right to left shunt

less o2 blood goes from the right side of the heart to the left side skipping the lungs


what is a functional murmur

usually seen with stress in children and infants, mostly normal and goes away with age, usually not of great concern


what are the causes of congenital heart defects

1. alcohol, antiseizure,
2. maternal rubella
4. diabetic mothers
5. 10x greater change of siblings have defects
6. environment


atrial septal defect

Left-> right
abnormal opening between atria leading to increased pressure and o2 on right side of heart


where do most of the atrial septal defects happen

90% occure at foramen ovale


clinical mani of atrial septal defect

usually asymptomatic
may show s/s of HF


ventricular septal defect

left-> right shunt
abnormal opening between the ventricles leading to increased pressure and o2 on R side of heart (RV)


clinical mani of ventricular septal defect

1. usually asymptomatic (most close spontaneously)
2. may see s/s increased volume or HF on R side
3. most common CHD


patent ductus artheriosus

left-> right shunt
failure of fetal structure to close after birth

blood shunted from high pressure aorta to low pressure pulmonary artery

usually closes with higher o2 levels


clinical mani of patent ductus arteriosus

may see s/s of HF or increased volume of R side


coarctation of aorta

acyanotic heart disease
narrowing of aorta


what are the two types of coarctation of aorta

1. pre-ductal
2. post ductal


pre-ductal coarctation of aorta

between the ductus arteriosus and subclavian artery (most severe)


post-ductal coarctation of aorta

distal to the ductus arteriosus


clinical mani of coartation of aorta on the proximal side

increased pressure proximal to the defect causes
1. high BP
2. bounding pulses in upper extremities
3. dizziness, headache, fainting,


clinical mani of coarctation of aorta distal

decreased blood supply distal to defect causes:
1. low BP
2. decreased/absent femoral pulses
3. muscle cramps, cool pale extremities


cyanotic heart disease

right-left shunt
desaturated venous blood flows into the left side of the heart, bypassing the lungs because the pressure on the right side is greater than the left or the vessels are misplaced


what are the 4 defects in tetralogy of fallot

1. VSD- ventricle septal defect
2. pulmonic valve stenosis
3. overriding aorta (shift into right ventricle)
4. R ventricle hyertrophy


what are the clinical mani of tetalogy of fallot

(related to degree of pulm stenosis)
1. Polycythemia
2. anoxic spells
3. increases systemic vascular resistance
4. shunted physical growth
5. murmer
6. squatting
5. clubbing


what all happens with the tetralogy of fallot

increased pressure in the RV leads to right ventricle hypertrophy. Pulmonary valve stenosis and open VSD lead to blood being shunted into the overriding aorta and lV


where does the pressure increase and move to in tetralogy of fallot

high pressure on right pushing to the left