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GCSE Chemistry Unit 2 > Structure and bonding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structure and bonding Deck (9)
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Describe, in terms of electrons, what happens when a magnesium atom reacts with chlorine atoms to produce magnesium chloride. [4]

- magnesium loses two electrons...
- ...and chlorine gains one electron
- which forms one magnesium and two chlorines
- therefore forming ionic bonds


Describe the structure and bonding in sodium chloride. [4]

- it's a lattice / giant structure
- it contains ions...
- ...Na+ and Cl−
- electrostatic attraction takes place


When sodium chloride is electrolysed, one product is chlorine.
Name the two other products from the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. [2]

- hydrogen
- sodium hydroxide


Explain why iodine has a low melting point. [3]

- it's made up of simple molecules...
- ...with intermolecular forces...
- ...which are weak


Explain, in terms of particles, why liquid iodine does not conduct electricity. [2]

- iodine has no delocalised electrons...
- iodine has no ions...
- ...therefore cannot carry charge


Explain why chlorine is a gas at room temperature, but sodium chloride is a solid at room temperature. [6]

- covalent bonds between atoms
- forming simple molecules
- weak attraction between molecules
- low melting point

Sodium chloride:
- it forms ionic bonds...
- it forms strong bonds...
- all directions...
- ...between oppositely charged ions...
- ...forming a giant lattice
- large amounts of energy are needed to break the bonds...
- ...therefore, it has a high melting point


Glass can be coloured using tiny particles of gold. Gold is a metal.
Describe the structure of a metal. [3]

- it's a lattice / giant structure...
- ...of positive ions...
- ...with delocalised electrons


Name the type of bonding in a molecule of water. [1]



The main gas in the atmosphere of Mars is carbon dioxide.
Explain why, in terms of structure, carbon dioxide is a gas, even at low temperatures. [3]

- gas has simple / small molecules
- the intermolecular forces (are weak)...
- they only need a small amount of
energy to be overcome / to separate