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Flashcards in Structure of the earth Deck (18):
1

From the colder to hotter parts of the earths structure, state the name and whether it is solid or liquid.

  • Crust/Solid
  • Mantle/Liquid
  • Outer core/Liquid
  • Inner core/Solid 

2

What do Volcanos tend to be near?

  • Plate boundarys

3

Why would you want to live near a volcano?

  • Fertile volcanic soils
  • Geo thermal power
  • Tourism
  • Tradition

4

What type of eruption was Eyjafjallajokull?

  • A phreato-magmatic eruption

5

What are some features of a Basaltic eruption? 

  • Low in silica
  • Runny lava
  • Gas escapes easily
  • Non-Explosive

6

What are some features of a Rhyolitic eruption?

  • High in silica
  • Viscous lava
  • Gas escapes explosivly
  • Dangerous

7

What is the very good term for ash?

  • Tephra

8

What is a very good term for glacial outbursts?

  • Jokulhlaups

9

State some facts about Eyjafjallajokull

  • 800 people evacuated from Iceland
  • 17000 flights cancelled in the first 24hours
  • 8km plume of ash
  • Olafer and Gudni Egutsen run a farm near the volcano 
  • It erupted on the 14th April 2010
  • 20 countrys closed their airspace for 6 days

10

What are the two types of plate boundarys?

  • Destructive plate boundarys = Plates move towards each other denser oceanic forced into mantle and destroyed. Often creates volcanos and ocean trenches.
  • Constuctive plate boundarys = Two plates move away from each other. This means magma rises from the mantle to fill the gap which cools, creating new crust.
  • Conservative plate boundarys = Plates move sideways past each other. Crust isn't created or destroyed.

11

When did the Nepal earthquake occur?

2015

12

What magnitude was the Nepal earthquake?

  • 7

13

Why was the Nepal earthquake so devistating?

  • Nepal has high population density
  • The people were unprepared
  • Poor infrastructure
  • Education poor
  • Less aid for injured people

14

State four types of building technology that can be used to reduce the impact of earthquake damage.

  • A strong flexible steel frame
  • Shock absorbers
  • Very deep foundations
  • Strong safety glass prevents windows braking

15

Monitoring for tectonic activity is another way to prevent earthquake and volcano damage. What are some ways of monitoring tectonic activity?

  • For VOLCANOS
  • Satelite images
  • Seismic waves
  • Gas emissions
  • For EARTHQUAKES
  • Animal behavior 
  • Laser beams that detect plate movement

16

What was the largest earthquake ever?

  • 2011 Japan (magnitude 9.0) and (20,896 deaths)

17

What was the deadliest earthquake ever?

  • Haiti (magnitute 7.0) and (316,000 deaths)

18

How did Iceland predict, prepare for Eyjafyallayokul?

  • The Icelandic Met Office 
  • Evacuation plans
  • Dam buildings