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Flashcards in Structure Of The Immune System Deck (19)
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1

What are the two arms of the immune system?

Innate: fast, non-specific, immediate, PAMPs and early induced response
Adaptive: slow but highly specific, antigen driven, mediated by lymphocytes and late response

2

What are the barriers of the immune system?

Tissue and mucus

3

What is haematopoeisis?

Differentiation and maturation of haematological cells
Two lineages; erythroid and lymphoid

4

What are the innate immune cells?

Monocytes
Neutrophils
Macrophage
Mast cells
Basophils
Eosinophils
Dendritic cells
Non toxic ILCs
Natural killer cells
γδ T cells

5

What are monocytes?

large, horse shoe shaped nucleus, recruited to tissue and differentiate into tissue specific macrophages

6

What are neutrophils?

multi lobed nucleus and granular cytoplasm, 40-95% of total wbc, migrate into tissue and act as phagocytes, important in bacterial infections, produce anti microbial peptides

7

What are mast cells?

Round nucleus
Precursors differentiate in tissues
Allergic response- cross linking of IgE
Release of granules

8

What are basophils?

Largest granulocyte
Similar to mast cells (IgE)
Fewer but larger granules
Differentiate and mature in bone marrow
Circulate in periphery but can infiltrate tissue

9

What are eosinophils?

Bi-lobed nucleus and protein granules
Granules can kill larger pathogens
Important in parasitic infection and allergy
Can do phagocytosis but not main role

10

What are dendritic cells?

Most potent APC
Concentrated in secondary lymphoid organs
Professional phagocytes
Various non-self receptors

11

What are non-cytotoxic ILCs?

Classical lymphoid morphology but no cell surface markers
Three groups;
ILC1: involved in immunity to intracellular bacteria and parasites
ILC2: involved in anti-helminth immunity, allergic inflammation and tissue repair
ILC3: can promote antibacterial immunity, chronic inflammation and tissue repair

12

What are natural killer cells?

Develop in bone marrow
Innate sentinels
Kill virus infected cells

13

What are γδ T cells?

Type of T cell with γ and δ sub units
Not restricted to presented peptide and recognise while protein and free Ag
Mostly in gut

14

What are the cells of the innate immune system?

Naive
T cells
B cells

15

What are naive lymphocytes?

Small, motile and morphologically indistinguishable
Short life span
Thin rim of cytoplasm around condensed nucleus

16

What are T cells?

Progenitors from bone marrow migrate to thymus for maturation and expansion
98% die due to positive and negative selections against them
Several types;
T helper: assist other leukocytes
Cytotoxic: destroy infected cells
Memory:antigen specific
NKT: recognise glycolipid Ag on CD1d
γδ Τ cells
Regulatory

17

What are B cells?

Progenitors arise and mature in bone marrow
Migrate to spleen and lymph nodes
Antigen blinds to B cell receptor
Types:
Plasma cell; antibody producer
Memory; dormant ready for secondary infection
Follicular; most common and generate high affinity antibody
Marginal zone; live in spleen and act as first line defence against blood pathogens
Regulatory

18

What is opsonisation?

Particles targeted for destruction by an immune cells known as a phagocyte

19

What are routes of antigen presentation?

MHC 1 and 2
1: peptides from cytosol to CD8 T cells
2: peptides from vesicules to CD4 T cells