Structures of Ribonucelic Acid Flashcards Preview

Biology-8-DNA, Genes and Protein Synthesis > Structures of Ribonucelic Acid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structures of Ribonucelic Acid Deck (22):

How is the coded information on the dna in the nucleus transferred into proteins ?

Sections of dna code are transcribed onto a single stranded molecule called ribonucleic acid


What is messenger rna

It transfers dna code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm


How does mRNA leave the nucleus

Through the nuclear pores to enter the cytoplasm

Where the coded information that it contains is used to determine the sequence of amino acids in the proteins


What is a codon

The sequence of three bases on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid


What is the genome

The complete set of genes in a cell, including those in the mitochondria and/or chloroplasts


What is the complete proteome

The full range of proteins produced by the genome


What is the proteome

The proteins produced by a given type of cell under a certain set of conditions


What’s the structure of RNA

It is a polymer made up of repeating mononucleotide sub-units. It forms a single strand in which each nucleotide is made up of :

The pentode sugar ribose

One of the organic bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil )

A phosphate group


What are the 2 types of rna that are important in protein synthesis

Messenger rna - mRNA

Transfer rna -tRNA


What’s the structure of mRNA

-long strand arranged in a single helix

-the base sequence of dna is determined by the sequence of bases on a length of dna in a process called transcription


What does mRNA do when it leaves the nucleus

It associates with the ribosomes and acts as a template for protein synthesis


How mRNA structure suited to its function

As if posses information in the form of codons ( 3 bases that are complementary to a triplet in dna). The sequence of codons determines the amino acid sequence of a specific polypeptide that will be made.


What is tRNA

A relatively small molecule that is made up of around 80 nucleotides.


What’s the structure of tRNA

Single stranded chain folded into a clover leaf shape

With one end of the chain extending beyond the other


Why is one end of the chain extending beyond the other

This is the part of the tRNA molecule to which an amino acid can easily attach


What’s at the opposite end of the tRNA molecule

A sequence of 3 other organic bases, known as anticodon


Why does there need to be as many tRNA molecules as there are coding triplets

As genetic code is degenerate


Each tRNA is specific to one amino acid. What does this m an

It has an anticodon that is specific to that amino acid


Distinguish between the structure of mRNA and the structure of tRNA

mRNA is larger, has a greater variety of types and is shaped as a long single helix

tRNA is smaller, has fewer types and is clover leafed shape


State ways in which the molecular structure of rna differs from dna

Rna is smaller then dna

Rna is usually a single strand and dna a double helix

Sugar in rna is ribose, sugar in dna is deoxyribose

In rna the base uracil replaces thymine


Distinguish between a codon and an anticodon

A codon is the triplet of bases on messenger RNA that codes for an amino acid. An anticodon is the triplet of bases on a transfer RNA molecule that is complementary to a codon


What pairs with the 3 complementary organic bases that make up a codon on mRNA in protein synthesis

An anticodon