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Flashcards in Student Handout 1.2A Deck (19)
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What are 4 key environmental factors

Water Topography Minerals Vegetation


___ is the EvF that has the greatest influence on whether or not human settlement will thrive.



Most human settlements are build near ____



Freshwater sources include

lakes and rivers


Water can act as a source of ___ and ___

food and transportation


Topography is the __________

natural shape of the land


Humans prefer to settle in __, ___ land such as ___ and ____

flat, fertile ... plains or valleys


why don't humans like to settle in deserts or mountainous regions

natural barriers that make travel difficult


____ are sometimes called the "hidden" EvF



where are minerals found

below the earth's surface mountainous regions


5 well known minerals include?

gold, silver, iron, copper, and tin


In contrast to minerals, ____ is a visible EvF



How are grasses, plants and trees used?

sources of food, tools, and building materials


What EvF is impacted by region and climate ...and how?

vegetation: in harsh climates such as desert regions plant life is scarce


___ climate regions have ____ and a variety of plant life

moderate ... predictable rainfall


Where is the best place to live in Mesopotamia?

Most (i.e. like the Sumerians who did first) settled in south between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Rich water supply and a flat topography. Rivers supply food: fish and waterfowl.


What are some drawbacks to living in southern Mesopotamia

lack of natural barriers made it easy for nomadic groups from Syrian Desert & Zagros Mountains to move-in. 

Limited mineral and vegetation led to war

Taurus mountains contained minerals like copper & tin


lots of fights to access trade routes


Where did most settle ...why ...and when?

starting in 5500 B.C.E

from Canaan, Arabian Desert, and Nubian Desert

came to Egypt: "the Gift of the Nile"

along banks of Nile

for it's predicatable (July) cycle of flooding ...leaving dry ground moist and rich for farming

also animals and vegation: fish, ducks, geese, and edible waterbirds in the delta

Papyrus (reeds) harvested and made into baskets, paper, and sandals

3 deserts protect from invasion, thus no big investment in military tech (like in Mesopotamia)



Where, When, Why settle in Canaan

around 8000 B.C.E. 

settled near Jordan River for its abundance of animal, vegetation, & water

some farmed with simple tools and animal-drawn plows

the large village of Jericho was a weathly walled city


Cons: besides Jordan river valley an dcost near mediterranean sea, Canaan was small with varied landscape.

most were poor nomadic herders (not farmers) due to fertile plains, grassy slopes, rocky hills and arid deserts

folowing flocks (sheep, goat, cattle, donkey, camel) along edges of Syrian and Negev Deserts and into rolling hills


few minerals but numerious land and sea routes for traders: Gold & spices from Arabia across Negev and timber floated down from Lebanon mountains