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Flashcards in Study / Experiment Attributes Deck (20)
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A research design is a plan for what?

For selecting and measuring the independent and dependent variables in order to answer research questions


Experimental Studies: those in which researchers ______ one of more factors that they will ________ during the experiment.

identify; manipulate or control


Nonexperiment Studies: those in which researches _______ existing conditions or differences without _______ them.

investigate; manipulating


Longitudinal Design/Research

an individual or group is followed for some amount of time (days or years)


Investigational Design aka "the natural experiment"

does not have any independent variables that are manipulated; one just observes what naturally happens.
Ex: survery of knowledge by SLP's in area of ACC devices


Quasi experimental Design

involves the manipulation of at least one independent variable
ex: relationship of use of AAC devices in classrooms by children with cerebral palsy w/ educational advancement to grade level


continuous vs. categorical variables

Continuous variables=continuum of magnitude; ex: hearing loss in dB, MLU

categorical variables= no continuum-- types of observations cannot be combined or scaled ; ex: measurement may be frequency counts within types of categories (nominal data)


What are advantages of single subject designs?

-close examination for individual differences
-a real subject will be described in data

*single subject designs does not necessarily mean one subject; can be a group


What are advantages of group designs?

-substantial number of statistical tools for assessing reliability of observations
-responses and existance of statistical controls over order, sequence and influence of independent variables.


single group design vs. group design

single group design : typical of individual & no assumptions of uniformity :: group design : typical of a group & assumption of uniformity


ex post facto design

(single or group) restrospective, but historical variables compared to finding effect of an independent variable


experimental design

involves the manipulation of at least one variable and the random assignment of subjects to groups


time series design

(single or group) A-B design (no treatment)


counterbalanced design

(group only) equal proportions of independent variables


randomized control trials

(group only) random assignment of subjects to groups; one group has placebo or conventional treatment & one or more groups have experimental treatment; blinded or double blinded


factorial design

(group only) subject organized in groups by independent variables; may have factors nested under factors


between subjects

(group only) measuring for a difference between 2 or more groups of subjects


within subjects

measuring whether a difference has occurred in one group over time (time series)


prospective vs. retrospective research

prospective: quetions formed before data collection:: retrospective: data existed before research


selection variables vs. treatment variables

selection: cannot be manipulated :: treatment: can be manipulated