Study Flash Cards Preview

A&P Midterm Study Cards > Study Flash Cards > Flashcards

Flashcards in Study Flash Cards Deck (86):
1

Anatomical position

The erect position of the body with the face directed forward, the arms at the side, and the palms of the hands facing forward.

2

What are three somato types?

Endomorph, mesomorph, and ectomorph.

Mesomorph is mascullar and solid
Endomorph has a rounder body shape
Ectomorph is tall and lean

3

Superficial

Closer to the surface of the body.

4

Deep

Deeper into the body.

5

Four tissue types

Muscle, Epithelial, Connective, and Nervous.

6

Definition of Anatomy

Investigating human structure via dissection and other methods.
Also...
The science of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts.

7

Definition of Physiology

Nature of human function
Or
The study of the functions of living organisms and their parts.

8

Levels of organization

Chemical, organelle, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
COCTOSO

9

Proximal

"Nearest trunk of the body".

10

Epidemiology

The study of the occurrence, distribution, and transmission of diseases.

11

Distal

"Farthest from the trunk of the body".

12

Negative feedback loops

Oppose a change.
Ex. Skin detecting you're cold, sends message to hypothalamus and you begging shivering to warm up.
Ex. Control of blood sugar by insulin

13

Positive feedback loop

Accelerate a change.
Ex. Child birth

14

Homeostasis

Relatively constant state maintained by the body.

15

Four elements that make up 96% of the human body

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, & Nitrogen
CHON

16

Atomic weight

number of protons plus number of neutrons
AKA
Mass #

17

How we determine a specific element

The number of protons in an atom is the defining feature of an atom it's what makes one element different from another. The # of protons in an atom is also called its atomic number. Oxygen stops have 8 protons.

18

Carbon

Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons
It's atomic weight is 12
4 electrons in outer shell
2 electrons in its inner shell
Protons are positive
Electrons are negative
Neutrons are neutral

19

Trace elements

Iron (FE) Ferrous Sulfate, zinc, magnesium

20

Isotopes

Isotopes of an element contain the same # of protons but different # of neutrons

21

Ionic bond

Ionic bond is formed by the transfer of electrons; it is a strong electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively charged ions together.

22

Covalent bond

A covalent bond is formed by sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

23

Four types of organic compounds (substances) in the body

Protein, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids

Protein= CHON, Carbohydrates = CHO
Nucleic acids = CHONP, Lipids= CHO

24

Peptide bonds

A covalent bond linking two consecutive amino acids
Joined together molecules of amino acids

25

Vitamin D

Helps the body absorb calcium
Vit D is a steroid
Classified as a hormone

26

Decomposition Reaction

When a substance breaks down into two or more simple substances, breaking of chemical bonds
AB -> A+B
The type of reaction most likely to release energy

27

Synthesis Reaction

Combination of two or more substances to form a more complex substance, formation of new chemical bonds
A+B = AB
The type of chemical reaction that requires energy

28

DNA

Double strand
Contains deoxyribose
Have 4 different nitrogen bases: GCAT adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Strands of nucleotides
Contains nucleus
Carbohydrates are part of DNA

29

RNA

Is a single strand
Contains ribose
Nitrogenous bases: GUAC Guanine, uracil, adenine, cytosine
Carbohydrates are part of RNA

30

Native state

Final functional shape of a protein molecule

31

Prostaglandin

Tissue hormones, which are produced by cell membranes through the body.
Type of lipid
Helps regulate flam action and tissue repair

32

Octet rule

8 is great
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has 8 electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electronic configuration as noble gas

33

Cholesterol

LDL low density lipids - under 100 - bad cholesterol
HDL high density lipids- over 40 - good cholesterol
Cholesterol is a steroid found in the plasma membrane surrounding every body cell that is important for structure

34

Steroid

Derived from cholesterol
Main component is the steroid nucleus
Steroids are found in the cytoplasm of lipids
Have a ring like structure
Type of lipid found in sex hormones

35

Layers of skin from superficial to deep

CLGSB
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale

36

Plasma membrane

Protects the cell from its surroundings
Composed of a phospholipid bi layer with embedded proteins
Selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules
Regulates the movement of substances in and out of cells

37

Lysosomes

Mains sites of digestion that is the breakdown of structures within cells
Is a membranous organelle
Digestion of foreign material
Allows for recycling of amino acids
Made up of microscopic membranous sacks that have "pinches off" from Golgi apparatus

38

Ribosomes

Cell structure that makes protein
Can be found floating within the cytoplasm
Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
Considered a non-membranous organelle

39

Mitochondria

Are the power houses of the cell
Make ATP
Contain DNA
The inter membrane has a double membrane structure and it has folds called cristae

40

Dehydration synthesis

Formation of sucrose that involves the removal of a molecule of water

41

Microfilaments

Smallest cell fibers
Serve as cellular muscles
Can slide past each other and cause shortening of the cell
Twisted strands of protein molecules that lie parallel to the long axis of the cell

42

Microtubules

Largest part of the cell fibers
Tiny hollow tubes
Move things along in the cell
Protein sub units arranged in a spiral fashion

43

Tight Junctions

Occur in the intestines and other part of the body where it is important to control what gets through a sheet of cells

44

Gap Junctions

Form gaps or "tunnels " that join the cytoplasm of two cells
Fuse two plasma membranes into a single structure
Take place in the heart

45

Desmosomes

Are anchored internally by intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton
Hold skin cells together
Fibers on the outer surface of each desmosome interlock with each other
Belt desmosome encircle the entire cell

46

Golgi Apparatus

Processes and packages material to be secreted
Is membranous
Process protein molecules the ER
Processed proteins leave the final cisterna in a vesicle
After vesicles break away from the endoplasmic reticulum they move to the Golgi apparatus and fuse with the first cisterna (transport)
Once all processed proteins leave the final cisterna the contents may then be secreted to outside the cell

47

Diffusion

A passive process
High to low - no energy required
Occurs down a gradient
A natural phenomenon caused by the tendency of small particles to spread out evenly within a given space

48

Passive Transport

Move substances down their concentration gradients
Type of passive transport: simple and facilitated diffusion (channels and carriers)
Osmosis is a special example of channel meditated passive transport of water
Do not require energy expenditure of the cell membrane

49

Hypotonic

In a hypotonic solution water goes into the cell causing it to swell because the concentration of water is higher outside, there is a net movement of water from outside into the cell

50

Hypertonic Solution

A liquid which has more solute concentration than solution
So when a cell is placed into such solution water from the cell will be forced out of the cell and the cell will shrink

51

Isotonic

A term describing a fluid with the same potential osmotic pressure as cytosol

52

Active Transport

There are three main types of Active Transport: pumps, exocytosis, and endocytosis
Process of moving materials through the cell membrane that requires the use of energy
Two types of endocytosis: phagocytosis (large particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane and enter the cell in vesicles, the vesicles fuse with lysosomes, which digest the particles)
Pinocytosis (fluid and the substances dissolved in it enter the cell)
Vesicles meditated (endocytosis, exocytosis) moves large volumes of substances at once, as in secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters

53

Cellular Respiration

Is an important example of cell catabolism

Glycolysis begins with glucose and ends with Pyruvic acid and yields a small amount of energy, anaerobic(requires no oxygen), occurs within cytosol( outside of mitochondria).

Krefeld cycle/citric acid cycle begins with pyruvic acid(from glycolysis) and makes 2 ATP plus carbon dioxide, aerobic occurs inside the mitochondria

Electron transport system(ETS) makes 36 ATP, aerobic, occurs inside the mitochondria

54

Catabolism

Is the breakdown of complex molecules in living organism to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy

55

Anabolism

Is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units and these reactions require energy

56

Meiosis

Is required to produce egg and sperm cells for sexual reproduction

57

Muscle tissue

Functions for movement
Can contract
Types: skeletal(striated involuntary muscle tissue), smooth(nonstriated, involuntary, or visceral muscle tissue), cardiac(striated involuntary muscle tissue)

58

Epithelial Tissue

Functions: protection, sensory functions, secretions, absorption, excretion
Two types membranous and glandular
Characteristics: limited amount of matrix material; membranous type attached to a basement membrane; Avascular; cells are in close proximity, with many desmosomes and tight Junctions; capable of reproduction

59

Connective Tissue

General functions: connects, supports, transports, and protects
Types: fibrous, blood, bone, cartilage
General structure: extra cellular matrix(ECM) predominates in most connectives tissues and determines their physical characteristics

60

Nervous Tissues

Functions: rapid regulation and integration of body activities
Actual nerve tissue is ectodermal in origin and consists of two basic kind of cells, neurons and neuroglia
Special characteristics: excitability, conductivity

61

Ósmosis

Is the spontaneous net movement of water through a semi permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration

62

Adipose Tissue

Act as food(energy) reserve, support, protection, insulation(white fat), a d heat generation(brown fat)
Produces the hormones leptin which signals the brain how much fat is stored

63

Pseudostratified Epithelium

Has only one layer of oddly shaped columnar cells
Line the air passages and segments of the male reproductive system

64

Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Lines the vagina, mouth, and esophagus, free surface is moist, primary function is protection

65

Keratinized Stratified Squamous

Multiple layers of flat, Squamous cells, cells filled with keratin,covers outer skin on body surface

66

Simple Squamous Epithelium

One cell layer of flat cells, permeable to many substances, limb of the lung

67

Keratinized

Organic process by which keratin is deposited in cells and the cells become horny(as in nails and hair)

68

Exocrine glands

Exocrine glands discharge secretions into ducts
Shapes include tubular and alveolar

69

3 types of exocrine glands

Apocrine glands- secreted by pinching off. Example mammary glands
Holocrine glands- secretion products when released cause rapture and death of the cell. Example is sebaceous glands
Merocrine glands- secret directly through the cell membrane, secretion proceeds with no damage to plasma membrane and no loss of cytoplasma, most numerous type of gland. Example salivary glands

70

Endocrine glands

Ductless glands
Discharge secretions directly into the blood or interstitial fluid

71

Simple cuboidal

One cell layer of cube shaped cells, found in many glands and ducts

72

Stratified cuboidal Epithelium

Two or more rows of cells are typical, basement membrane is indistinct, located in sweat glands ducts and pharynx, serves as protective function

73

Osteocytes

Mature cells of bone: osteocytes, which are embedded in a calcified matrix

74

Functions of skin

Primary functions: support and protection

75

Hypodermis

Also called the subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia, located deep to the dermis, forms a connection between skin and other structures, not part of the skin

76

Type of sweat glands are the most numerous

Eccrine glands

77

Second degree burns

Blisters, severe pain, generalized swelling.Damage to sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands may occur, but Tissue death is not complete

78

Third degree burns

Destroys both dermis and epidermis, also called full thickness burns. Involves underlying tissue
Tissue death extends below the hair follicles and sweat glands

79

Pseudostratified columnar

Epithelium has only one layer off oddly shaped columnar cells

80

Systematic Anatomy

The various organ systems of the body are studied

81

What are examples of passive diffusion?

Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis , dialysis

82

Catalyst

Speed up a chemical reaction by reducing amount of energy needed

83

Primary structure (levels of protein)

Number,kind, and sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide chain held together by peptide bonds

84

Secondary structure (levels of protein structure)

The poly peptide is coiled or bent int9 hélices and pleated sheets stabilized by hydrogen bonds, this may include recurring patterns of helices called MOTIFS

85

Triglycerides and Fats

Glycerol and fatty acids are the building blocks
Triglycerides are the most abundant of the lipids
Most concentrated source of energy
Triglycerides are formed by dehydration synthesis
2types of fatty acids : saturated and unsaturated
Saturated is solid: all bonds are filled w hydrogen atoms
Unsaturated: kink because have one or more double bonds

86

Carbohydrates

Called sugars and starches
Organic compounds containing CHO
IN A NORMAL ration of 1:2:1