Test #4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #4 Deck (72):
1

Endosteum

Lining of the medullary cavity

2

Organic matrix of bone

Inorganic salts
Organic matrix
Collagenous fibers

3

Functions of the bone

Support - bones from the framework of the body and contribute to the shape, alignment, and positioning of body parts, ligaments help hold bones together.
Protection - bony "boxes" protect the delicate structure they enclose.
Movement - bones and their joints constitute levers that move as muscles contract.
Mineral storage - bones are the major reservoir for calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals.
Hematopoiesis - blood cell formation is carried out by myeloid tissue.

4

The cells that produce the organic matrix in bone are

Osteoblasts

5

What cell organelles synthesize organic matrix substances?

Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum

6

Small spaces in which bones cells lie are called

Lacunae

7

The basic structural unit of compact bone is

Osteon also known as haversian system

8

The bones in an adult that contain red marrow are

Ribs
Pelvis
Femur

9

An attachment for muscle fibers

Periosteum

10

Five types of bones

Long
Short
Irregular
Flat
Sesamoid

11

The primary purpose of epiphyseal plate is

Lengthening of long bones

12

Primary ossification center is located at the

Diaphysis

13

The epiphyseal plate is composed mostly of

Chondrocytes

14

Bone loss normally begins to exceed bone gain between the ages of

35-40 years

15

The first step to healing a bone fracture is

Fracture hematoma formation

16

Low blood calcium evokes a response from

Parathyroid hormone

17

The addition of bone to its outer surface resulting in growth in diameter is called

Appositional growth

18

Calcitonin functions

To stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts

19

The fibrous covering of cartilage is

Perichondrium

20

Elastic cartilage

Compose the external ear, epiglottis, and the auditory tube

21

The intervertebral discs are composed of

Fibrocartilage

22

Chondrosarcoma

A malignant tumor of hyaline cartilage that arises from chondroblasts

23

Osteosarcoma

The most common primary malignant tumor of skeletal tissue

24

Osteoporosis

Common bone disease often occurring in post menopausal women and manifesting symptoms of porous, brittle, and fragile bone

25

Paget's disease

Also known as osteitis deformans

26

Osteomyelitis

A bacterial infection of the bone and marrow tissue

27

Trabeculae

Crisscrossing bony branches of spongy bone

28

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells

29

Canaliculi

Connect lacunae

30

Lamellae

Ring of bone

31

Chondrocytes

Cartilage cells

32

Hematopoiesis

Used to describe the process of blood cell formation

33

Blood cell formation is a vital process carried on in

Red bone marrow

34

Axial skeleton contains how many bones

80

35

Appendicular skeleton contains how many bones

126

36

The Squamous suture connects which two bones

The temporal and sphenoid

37

The mastoid sinuses are found in which bone

Temporal

38

A meatus can be described as a

Tube like opening or channel

39

Separation of the nasal and cranial cavities is achieved by the

Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

40

Bones of the orbit include

Frontal
Lacrimal
Ethmoid

41

Lamina is a posterior portion of the

Vertebra

42

The dens projects from the body of the

Second vertebra

43

How many pairs of ribs do we have?

12

44

How many pairs of true ribs do we got?

7

45

How many pairs of false ribs do we have?

5

46

Another name for hunchback is

Kyphosis

47

The coronoid fossa is a

Depression on the humerus

48

The arm socket is the

Glenoid cavity

49

The strongest and lowermost portion of the coxal bone is

Ischium

50

During childbirth the infant passes through an imaginary plane called

Pelvic outlet

51

What is a synonym for shoulder girdle

Pectoral girdle

52

The heel bone is the

Calcaneus

53

Bones vary in their proportions of two types of bone tissue

Compact bone and cancellous (spongy) bone

54

Attaches tendons firmly to bones and contains blood vessels important in growth and repair

Periosteum

55

Cranial flat bones have an internal table and an external table of compact bone, between them is an inner region of cancellous bone called

Diploe

56

Calcification

Process by which hydroxyapatite crystals are formed.
Magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and fluoride are also found in bone

57

Osteon/Haversian canals run lengthwise through bone and are connected by (volkmann) canals

Structure of compact bone

58

Structures that make up each osteon

Lamellae
Concentric
Interstitial ( left over from previous osteon)
Circumferential

59

Function of osteons

Permit the delivery of nutrients
The removal of waste products

60

Osteoclasts are responsible for

Active erosion of bone minerals

61

Appositional growth

Occurs through the addition osseous tissue to the outer surface of a flat bone

62

A primary ossification center

Forms when a blood vessel enters the rapidly changing cartilage model at midpoint of the diaphysis

63

Hyaline cartilage

forms the costal cartilage rings in the trachea bronchial of the lungs and tip of the nose

64

The epiphyseal plate is composed of four layers

"Resting" cartilage cells
Zone of proliferation
Zone of hypertrophy
Zone of calcification

65

Osteoclasts

Enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity

66

The lambdoid suture is formed by the

Parietal bones and the occipital bone

67

The maxilla articulates with

Nasal, zygomatic, inferior conchae, and the palatine bones
The mandible is the only facial bone that does not articulate with the maxilla
The mandible is the largest strongest bone of the face

68

The zygomatic bone articulates with 4 other facial bones

Maxillary
Temporal
Frontal
Sphenoid
The zygomatic bone is also called the malar bone

69

All but the sacrum and coccyx have a

Vertebral foramen

70

The distal epiphysis of the humerus has 4 projections

The medial and lateral epicondytes
The capitulum
The trochlea

71

The pubis is the most

Anterior bone

72

The pubic arch in the male

Is less than a 90 degree angle