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Flashcards in Stuff Need To Know For The Exam Deck (32)
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1
Q

Regulation of gene expression at transcriptional level

A
  • lac operon
  • trancription factors - short non coding pieces of rna that act within a cells nucleus, activate or supress transcription of the gene - tumour supressor genes and proto-oncogenes
2
Q

Post transcriptional gene regulation

A
  • introns and exons - introns are non coding parts of DNA some may encode proteins and some may be short non coding lengths of RNA involved in gene regulation
3
Q

Post translational level of gene expression

A
  • enzymes are activated by being phosphorylated
4
Q

Describe how post translational activation happens

A
  • hormone binds to receptor on plasma membrane of target cell
  • actives g protien
  • actives adneyl cyclase
  • converts ATP to cAMP
  • cAMP activates PKA
  • PKA catalyses phosphorylation of proteins hydrolysing ATP in the process, activates enzymes in the cytoplams
  • PKA phosphorylates CREB
  • enters nucleus and acts as a transcriptional facotr
5
Q

Homeobox sequence

A

180 base pair found within gene that are involved in regulating patterns of anatomical development in animal fungi and plants

6
Q

What is the homeodomain sequence

A

Homeodomain sequence can fold into a particular shape and bind to DNA regularing transcription of adjacent genes
60 amino acid sequence
Contains two alpha helixes connected by one turn
Binds to TAAT sequence of the enhancer region

7
Q

How are hox genes regulated

A
  • gap genes and pair rule genes - regulatated by maternally supplied mRNA from egg cytoplasm
8
Q

Apoptosis

A

Chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope breaks down

DNA breaks into fragments

9
Q

Physical mutagenic agents

A

X rays
Gamma rays
Uv light

10
Q

Chemical agents

A

Mustard gas
Nitrous acid
Aromatic amines
Reactive oxygen

11
Q

Biological agents

A

Viruses
Transposons - jumping genes and remnants of viral nucleic acid that have become incorporated into genomes
Food contaminants such as mycotoxins from fungi

12
Q

Deletion

A

Part of chromosome is lost

13
Q

Inversion

A

A section of chromosome mag break off turn 180 degrees and join again

14
Q

Translocation

A
  • piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
15
Q

Duplication

A

When chromosome is duplicated

16
Q

Non disjunction

A

One pair of chromosomes or chromatids fails to separate leaving one gamete with an extra chromosome

17
Q

Aneuploidy

A

Chromosome number is not an exact multiple of the haploid number for that organism

18
Q

Polyploidy

A

If a diploid gamete is fertilised by a haploid gamete the resulting zygote is triploid

19
Q

Codominance

A

Where both alleles present in the genotype of a heterozygous individual contribute to the indiviudals phenotype

20
Q

Multiple alleles

A

Characteristics for which there are three or more alleles in the populstioms gene pool

21
Q

Epistasis

A

Interaction of non linked gene loci where one masks expression of the other

22
Q

Geographical isolation

A

Allopatric speciation

23
Q

Reproductive isolation

A

Sympatric speciation

24
Q

Describe pyrosequencing

A
  • long length of DNA is cut into fragments of 300-800 base pairs using a nebuliser
  • lengths are then degraded into single stranded DNA these are the template DNas and are immobilised
  • sequencing primer is added and DNA is incubated with enzymes DNA polymersse, ATP sulfurylase , luciferase , apyrsse and the substrates adenosine 5 phosphosulfate and luciferin
  • only one of the 4 possible activated nucleotides ATP, TTP, CTP and GTP are added and any light detected is generated
  • one activayed nucleotode incorporated into a complimentary strand of DNA uses the strand to be sequenced as a template as this happens two extra phosphoryls are released as pyrophosphate
  • in the presence of APS the the enzyme ATP sulfurylase converts the pyrophosphate to ATP
  • in the presenxe of this ATP enzyme luciferase converts luciferin to oxyluciferin
  • this creates visible light which can be captured by a camera
    The amount of visible light is proportional to the amount of ATP available
25
Q

Application of gene sequencing

A

Comparisons between species
Evolutionary relationships
Variation between individuals

26
Q

PCR temperatures

A

95 break h bonds
68 anneal primers
72 taq DNA polymersee additon of nucleotides im 5 to 3 direction

27
Q

What are the vegetative parts of the plant

A

Runners stolens - grow on the surface, grow horizontal- can form roots at certain points
Rhizomes - grow underground - grow horizontally can form roots at certain points
suckers - new stems that grow from the roots- horiztonal branch might die leaving new stem as a separate individual
Bulbs - overwintering mechanims, undergound stem grows from a series of fleshy leaf bases, apical bud each grow into new plants
Corns - solid underground stem scaly leave and buds that grow into new plants
Leaves - immature plants drop of and take root
Tubers - underground stem, grow into one or more plants

28
Q

Efficiexy of biomass tranfer

A

Biomass at higher trophic level/ biomass at lower trophic level x 100

29
Q

What is productivity

A

The rate of production of new biomass by producers

30
Q

Work out net primary productivity

A

Gross primary productivity- respiration

31
Q

Succession on a rock

A

Algae and lichems pioneer community
Erosion of rock and build up of dead rotting organic material produce enough soil for larger plants like mosses and ferns to grow succeding the lichens and algae
Reach climax community

32
Q

Sand dunes

A

Sea rocket sea sandwort - tolerate salty water
Sea sandwort and sea couch grass - underground stems help stabilise the sands
Sea spurge and marram grass - traps wind blown sand shoots grow taller trapping more sand
Leguminous such as hares foot clover and birds foot recoil which convert nitrogen into nitrate