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Flashcards in Stuffy Nose Deck (22)
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1

What are the 4 core nasal problems?

  1. Blocked nose
  2. Loss of smell
  3. Discharge
  4. Facial pain

(4Ss - stuffy, smell, snot, sore)

2

What are the two types of rhinitis?

  1. Non-infective
  2. Infective

3

What typically causes infective rhinitis?

Viral URTI

4

What are the two type of non-infective rhinitis?

  1. Allergic
  2. Non-allergic

5

Allergic rhinitis can be either _______ or _________

Allergic rhinitis can be either intermittent or persistent

6

Which allergens can induce intermittent rhinitis?

  1. Grass pollen
  2. Tree pollen
  3. Fungal spores (e.g. cladosporidum)

7

Which allergens can induce persistent rhinitis?

  1. House dust mites
  2. Cat
  3. Dog

(salivary enzymes from cats and dogs cause allergic rhinits)

8

How can intermittent allergic rhinitis be classified?

Symptoms for <4 days per week

or

Symptoms for <4 weeks

9

How can persistent allergic rhinitis be classified?

Symptoms >4 days week

and

>4 weeks duration

10

What treatment options are there for allergic rhinitis?

  1. Allergen avoidance
  2. Symptomatic relief (antihistamines, topical steroids)
  3. Immunotherapy
  4. Surgery

11

Nasal polyps are often associated with which other condition?

Non-allergic asthma

12

How can nasal polyps be treated?

Oral then topical steroids

Surgery (if failure to improve)

13

Which key symptoms are associated with acute infective rhinosinusitis?

  1. Facial pain
  2. Discharge
  3. Nasal blockage

14

How should acute infective rhinosinusitis be treated?

Analgesics

Decongestants

Antibiotic (if persistent)

15

Infective rhinosinusitis is almost entirely caused by what?

Viruses (98%)

16

What are the two main types of non-allergic rhinitis?

  1. Vasomotor rhinitis
  2. Nasla polyps

17

How can non-infective rhinitis be treated?

  1. Topical nasal steroid
  2. Antihistamine (if required)
  3. Topical anticholinergic

18

Why do most nasal fractures deviate to the left?

Mostly caused by fights

Most people (90%) are right handed

19

What is a septal haematoma?

Blood underneath the perichonrium in the nasal cartilage

This prevents cartilage getting nutrients and O2 leading to death and nasal collapse

20

What is the number one cause of unilateral discharge in

a) Young children

b) Adults

a) Young children - Foreign body in the nose

b) Adults - Paranasal tumour

21

What is a severe complication of acute sinusitis?

Orbital cellulitis

22

How can specific allergens be tested for in allergic rhinitis?

Skin prick test

Radioallergosorbent assay (RAST) - detects specific IgE