What are the 4 core nasal problems?
- Blocked nose
- Loss of smell
- Facial pain
(4Ss - stuffy, smell, snot, sore)
What are the two types of rhinitis?
What typically causes infective rhinitis?
What are the two type of non-infective rhinitis?
Allergic rhinitis can be either _______ or _________
Allergic rhinitis can be either intermittent or persistent
Which allergens can induce intermittent rhinitis?
- Grass pollen
- Tree pollen
- Fungal spores (e.g. cladosporidum)
Which allergens can induce persistent rhinitis?
- House dust mites
(salivary enzymes from cats and dogs cause allergic rhinits)
How can intermittent allergic rhinitis be classified?
Symptoms for <4 days per week
Symptoms for <4 weeks
How can persistent allergic rhinitis be classified?
Symptoms >4 days week
>4 weeks duration
What treatment options are there for allergic rhinitis?
- Allergen avoidance
- Symptomatic relief (antihistamines, topical steroids)
Nasal polyps are often associated with which other condition?
How can nasal polyps be treated?
Oral then topical steroids
Surgery (if failure to improve)
Which key symptoms are associated with acute infective rhinosinusitis?
- Facial pain
- Nasal blockage
How should acute infective rhinosinusitis be treated?
Antibiotic (if persistent)
Infective rhinosinusitis is almost entirely caused by what?
What are the two main types of non-allergic rhinitis?
- Vasomotor rhinitis
- Nasla polyps
How can non-infective rhinitis be treated?
- Topical nasal steroid
- Antihistamine (if required)
- Topical anticholinergic
Why do most nasal fractures deviate to the left?
Mostly caused by fights
Most people (90%) are right handed
What is a septal haematoma?
Blood underneath the perichonrium in the nasal cartilage
This prevents cartilage getting nutrients and O2 leading to death and nasal collapse
What is the number one cause of unilateral discharge in
a) Young children
a) Young children - Foreign body in the nose
b) Adults - Paranasal tumour
What is a severe complication of acute sinusitis?
How can specific allergens be tested for in allergic rhinitis?
Skin prick test
Radioallergosorbent assay (RAST) - detects specific IgE