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Flashcards in ENT Pathology Deck (57)
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1

What lines the auditory meatus and external canal?

Epidermis

(containing sebaceous and ceruminous glands)

2

What lines the middle ear?

Columnar lined epithelium

3

Which type of epithelium lines the nasal vestibule?

Squamous epithelium

4

Which type of epithelium lines the nose and sinus?

Respiratory epithelium

(pseudostratified ciliated columnar, seromucinous glands)

It is also called Schneiderian epithelium

5

Which two components comprise a salivary gland?

  1. Acinar
  2. Ductular

6

Why are peripheral myoepithelial cells useful in salivary glands?

They have contractile properties

7

What is otitis media?

Inflammation of the inner ear

8

What can cause otitis media?

Viral infections mostly

Occasionally bacterial

9

Chronic otitis media may be as a result of which bacteria?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

10

What is cholesteatoma?

Keratinised squamous epithelium in middle ear

(it is NOT a tumour)

11

Which age group is affected by cholesteatoma?

Any

12

Despite not being a tumour, which neoplastic property does cholesteatoma possess?

High cell turnover

13

What is the pathogenesis for cholesteatoma?

Chronic otitis media

Perforation of tympanic membrane

14

Which tumour is associated with the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve?

Vestibular schwannoma

15

In which bone do vestibular schwannomas associate?

Temporal

16

What is the classic microscopic appearance of a schwannoma?

Verocay bodies

17

How do most vestibular scwannoma cases present?

Sporadic and unilateral

18

If a vestibular scwannoma presents bilaterally in a young patient, what should be suspected?

Neurofibromatosis Type 2

19

Which type of neurofibromatosis is more common?

Type 1

20

For which reasons may an individual develop neurofibromatosis type 2?

  1. AD inheritance
  2. Sporadic mutation in NF2 gene

21

Which clinical features will be seen in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2?

  1. Multiple meningiomas
  2. Gliomas
  3. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas
  4. Posterior subcapsular cataracts
  5. Pigmentary retinopathy

22

Which common benign swelling is often found in the nasal cavity?

Nasal polyps

23

What can induce nasal polyps?

  1. Allergy
  2. Infection
  3. Aspirin sensitivity
  4. Cystic fibrosis (young)

24

What must be ruled out if a child presents with nasal polyps?

Cystic fibrosis

25

What are the identifying features of nasal polyps microscopically?

Highly oedematous

Eosinophils prominent

26

How may a patient with GPA present?

  1. Pulmonary or renal disease
  2. Symptoms of nasal congestion

27

How is GPA identified?

cANCA +ve

28

What is the most common cause of septal ulceration?

Cocaine use

(GPA can also cause)

29

What are the identifying features of GPA on microscopy?

  1. Liquefactive or coagulative necrosis 
  2. Profuse eosinophils and multinucleated giant cells
  3. Pallisading histiocytes and giant cells with central necrosis
  4. Few lymphocytes and plasma cells

30

Which benign tumours may be found in the nasal cavity?

  1. Squamous papilloma
  2. Angiofibroma