Subatomic Particles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Subatomic Particles Deck (12):
1

Protons

- positive charge

- mass around 1amu

- found in the nucleus

- charge - the fundamental unit of charge (1.6 x 10-19 C)

  • denoted as +1e or +1

- The atomic # (Z) is equal to the number of protons found in an atom of that element

2

Neutrons

- Has no charge

- mass around 1amu

- neutron mass + proton mass = almost entire mass of an atom

3

Atomic Number

- number of protons in a given element

4

Atomic Mass

- essentially equal to the sum of an elements protons and neutrons

  • nearly equal to the mass number

5

Atomic Weight

- weighted average of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element

- periodic table lists atomic weights, not atomic masses

6

Isotopes

- atoms of a given element (same atomic number) that have different mass numbers.

- They differ in the number of neutrons

- identified by the element followed by the mass number

  • (ie: carbon-12, carbon-13, carbon-14)

7

Name the 3 isotopes of Hydrogen

  1. Protium 11H
  2. Deuterium 21H
  3. Tritium 31H

8

Electrons

- has a negative charge

- has a negligible mass

- surround the nucleus at varying distances and are associated with varying levels of electrical potential energy

  • electrons closer to the nucleus are at lower energy levels
  • electrons farthest from nucleus have the strongest interaction with the surrounding environment and weakest interactions with the nucleus

- has a charge equal in magnitude of a proton but with opposite charge

  • -1e or -e

9

Valence Electrons

- electrons furthest from nucleus

- more likely to be involved in bonds with other atoms because they experience the least electrostatic pull from their nucleus

- determine reactivity of an atom

10

Cation

- A positively charged atom

11

Anion

- A negatively charged atom

12

Avogadro's Number

  • 6.02 x 1023