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Flashcards in Summer Words for AP Deck (512):
1

a, ab

from, away from; by

2

ac, atque

and, and also; as, than

3

ad

to, toward, near; (with numerals and dates) about; at, by

4

aut; aut...aut

or, either; either...or

5

cum (prep w/ abl.)

with

6

cum (conj.)

when, since; although

7

do,

dare, dedi, datum
to give, put, appoint; to grant, honor

8

et; et...et

and, both, also, even; both...and

9

hic,

haec, hoc
this, these; the latter; he, she, it

10

ille,

illa, illud
that, those; the former; he, she, it

11

in

w/abl: in, on; among
w/acc: into, onto, to; against; over; among; for

12

ipse,

ipsa, ipsum
himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, themselves; very; he, she, it

13

magnus,

magna, magnum
great, large, huge; mighty, loud

14

nec, neque; nec...nec

not, nor, and...not, neither; neither...nor

15

non

not, no, by no means

16

omnis,

omne
all every, whole; as a whole

17

per

through, along; by; throughout

18

-que

(enclitic conj.)
and, also, even

19

qui,

quae, quod
who, which; what; that; any

20

sum,

esse, fui, futurum
to be; to exist

21

si

if; when; whether

22

video

vidēre, vidi, visum
to see, perceive; to understand; to be seen, (as deponent) to seem

23

altus,

alta, altum
high, lofty; deep, profound; (as a noun) the sea

24

animus,

animi, m.
soul, spirit, heart; courage

25

arma,

armorum, n pl.
weapons, arms; utensils, equipment

26

deus,

dei, m.
god, deity

27

dico,

dicere, dixi, dictum
to say, speak; to name, define

28

ego,

mei, mihi, me, me
I, me

29

ferro,

ferre, tuli, latum
to bring, carry; to wear; to report

30

hic

here

31

iam

now, already

32

ignis,

ignis, m.
fire, light, lightning; passion, fury

33

ne

not; do not; lest

34

-ne

(enclitic)
introduces a yes/no question

35

nunc

now

36

primus,

prima, primum
first, chief, excellent

37

quis,

quis, quid
who, what

38

sed

but

39

sic

thus, in such a way

40

talis,

talis, tale
such, of such a kind

41

terra,

terrae, f.
earth, land, soil

42

tu,

tui, tibi, te, te
you (sg.)

43

tum

then, at that time, further

44

urbs,

urbis, f.
city

45

vir,

viri, m.
man, male; her; husband

46

bellum,

belli, n.
war

47

castra,

castrorum, n pl.
(military) camp

48

civitas,

civitatis, f.
state

49

consilium,

consilii, n.
advice; plan; council

50

de

down from, from; about, concerning; for

51

dico,

dicere, dixi, dictum
to say; to set, appoint; to administer; to plead

52

dies,

diei, m/f.
day

53

in dies

every day

54

e, ex

out of; from; of; on; according to

55

facio,

facere, feci, factum
to do; make; to achieve; o carry out

56

fines,

finium, m pl.
borders; land, territory

57

Gallia,

Galliae, f.
(region of) Gaul

58

Gallus,

Galli, m.
(inhabitant of) Gaul

59

habeo,

habēre, habui, habitum
to have; to hold; to keep; to make (a speech); to take (account); to regard, consider

60

Helvetius,

Helvetia, Helvetium
Helvetian

61

hiberna,

hibernorum, n pl.
winter quarters

62

homo,

hominis, m/f.
human, person

63

idem,

eadem, idem
the same

64

inter

between, among

65

is,

ea, id
this; that; he, she, it

66

iter,

itineris, n.
journey, march, route

67

iubeo,

iubēre, iussi, iussum
to order

68

legatus,

legati, m.
envoy, ambassador; lieutenant

69

legio,

legionis, f.
legion

70

locus,

loci, m.
place, position; rank

71

miles,

militis, m.
soldier

72

mitto,

mittere, misi, missum
to send

73

multitudo,

multitudinis, f.
crowd, multitude

74

navis,

navis, f.
ship

75

navis longa

warship

76

noster,

nostra, nostrum
our

77

pars,

partis, f
part: direction: side

78

possum,

posse, potui
to be able, be powerful; to be possible

79

pro

in front of, before; for, as; considering

80

proelium,

proeli, n.
battle

81

quod

(conj.)
because, the fact that

82

propterea quod

for the very reason that

83

res,

rei, f.
thing; matter; affair; circumstance; supply; purpose; experience

84

res publica

republic

85

res gesta

deed

86

su,

sui, sibi, se (sese), se (sese)
himself, herself, itself, themselves; him, her, it, them; (as subject of infinitive) he, she, it, they

87

suus,

sua, suum
his, her, its, their (own)

88

unus,

una, unum
one, only

89

ut,

uti
as, so that, to...; that

90

aliquis,

aliquis, aliquid
someone, anyone, something

91

alius,

alia, aliud
another, other, else

92

amor,

amoris, m.
love, affection, Cupid (proper noun)

93

ante

(prep) before, in front of
(adv) previously

94

arx,

arcis, f.
fortress, citadel; hill, peak

95

aspicio,

aspicere, aspexi, aspectum
to look at, behold

96

bellum,

belli, n.
war, combat, fight

97

caelum,

caeli, n.
sky

98

caput,

capitis, n.
head, summit; person

99

circum

around; at; near

100

corpus,

corporis, n.
body

101

de

down from, away from; concerning, about

102

dexter,

dextra, dextrum
right, to the right; skillful; favorable

103

duco,

ducere, duxi, ductum
to lead, guide; to conduct; to choose; to think

104

eo,

īre, ii (or ivi), itum
to go, walk, move; to ride; to sail

105

erro,

errāre, erravi, erratum
to wander, roam; to be mistaken

106

e, ex

out of, from; according to

107

fama,

famae, f.
report, rumor, saying

108

fatum,

fati,n.
fate, prediction

109

fluctus,

fluctūs, m.
wave, tide, surge

110

for,

fāri, fatus sum
to say, speak

111

gens,

gentis, f.
race, clan; descendant

112

ingens,

ingens, ingentis
huge, massive, extraordinary

113

ira,

irae, f.
anger, fury, hatred

114

Italia,

Italiae, f.
Italy

115

iubeo,

iubēre, iussi, iussum
to order, command; to tell

116

labor,

laboris, m.
labor, work; hardship, suffering

117

latus,

lata, latum
wide, extensive, spacious

118

litus,

litoris, n.
shore, beach

119

manus,

manūs, f.
hand; group, band; handwork

120

medius,

media, medium
middle, the middle

121

meus,

mea, meum
my, mine

122

multus,

multa, multum
much, many (pl)

123

navis,

navis, f.
ship; fleet (pl)

124

noster,

nostra, nostrum
our, ours

125

oculus,

oculi, m.
eye

126

os,

oris, n.
mouth; face; expression

127

pater,

patris, m.
father; ancestor

128

pectus,

pectoris, n.
chest, breast, heart

129

peto,

petere, petivi, petitum
to look for, seek; to attack; to scan

130

regina,

reginae, f.
queen

131

regnum,

regni, n.
kingdom, realm; rule

132

saxum,

saxi,n.
boulder, stone, large rock

133

sub

w/abl: under, at the foot of
w/acc: to, toward, up to

134

summus,

summa, summum
highest, loftiest, supreme, the top of

135

tantus,

tanta, tantum
so great, so much, so large

136

teneo,

tenēre, tenui, tentum
to hold, have; to occupy; to hold back

137

Troia,

Troiae, f.
Troy

138

tuus,

tua, tuum
your (sg)

139

ubi

where, when

140

umbra,

umbrae, f.
shadow, shade; ghost

141

unda,

undae, f.
wave; water, sea

142

ut

as; when; so that; to; how!

143

venio,

venīre, veni, ventum
to come, arrive; to go

144

ventus,

venti, m.
wind, breeze

145

accido,

accidere, accidi
to happen

146

accipio,

accipere, accepi, acceptum
to receive; to hear

147

alius,

alia, aliud
other, another; else; (pl.) others, some

148

alter,

altera, alterum
the one...the other, another

149

annus,

anni, m.
year

150

arbitror,

arbitrāri, arbitratus sum
to think, consider

151

arma,

armorum, n pl.
weapons, arms

152

capio,

capere, cepi, captum
to seize, take;

153

consilium capere

to form, make

154

causa,

causae, f.
cause, reason; case

155

causa

for the sake of

156

coepi,

coepisse, coeptum
to have begun

157

cognosco,

cognoscere, cognovi, cognitum
to learn, learn about

158

cogo,

cogere, coegi, coactum
to drive together, collect; to compel, force

159

conicio,

conicere, conieci, coniectum
to throw, hurl

160

constituo,

constituere, constitui, constitutum
to establish, decide

161

convenio,

convenīre, conveni, conventum
to come together, gather, meet

162

copia,

copiae, f.
supply; resource; (pl.) forces, troops, supplies

163

discedo,

discedere, discessi, discessurus
to depart`

164

eques,

equitis, m.
horseman; knight; (pl.) cavalry

165

exercitus,

exercitūs, m.
army

166

existimo,

existimāre, existimavi, existimatum
to think, consider

167

facile

easily

168

flumen,

fluminis, n.
river

169

frumentum,

frumenti, n.
grain

170

genus,

generis, n
birth, origin; kind, class

171

Germani,

Germanorum, m pl.
Germans

172

gravis,

gravis, grave
heavy; serious; severe

173

interficio,

interficere, interfici, interfectum
to kill

174

littera,

litterarum, f pl.
letter, epistle; letters (of the alphabet); writing, writings

175

longe

far, at a distance; by far

176

manus,

manūs, f.
hand; nad, force (of an army)

177

mille,

(pl) milia
thousand

178

mors,

mortis, f.
death

179

multus,

multa, multum
much; (pl.) many

180

ne

so that not, not to...; (after clauses of fearing) that

181

ne quidem

not

182

nihil

n. (indecl)
nothing, not anythinig; (w/ gen.) no

183

nox,

noctis, f.
night

184

nullus,

nulla, nullum
no

185

non nullus

some

186

numerus,

numeri, m.
number

187

ordo,

ordinis, m.
rank, position

188

periculum,

periculi, n.
danger

189

persuadeo,

persuadēre, persuasi, persuasum
to persuade (w/ dat.)

190

populus,

populi, m.
people, nation

191

primus,

prima, primum
first

192

profiscor,

profisci, profectus sum
to set out, depart

193

proximus,

proxima, proximum
nearest, next

194

publicus,

publica,, publicum
public, common

195

pugno,

pugnāre, pugnavi, pugnatum
to fight

196

quam

as, than; (w/ superlative) as...as possible

197

post(ea) quam

after

198

prius quam

before

199

quis,

quis, quid
who, what (after si, nisi, num, ne)

200

recipio,

recipere, recepi, receptum
to receive

201

se recipere

to go; to withdraw; to recover

202

Rhenus,

Rheni, m.
Rhine (river between Gaul and Germany)

203

salus,

salutis, f.
well-being, safety

204

sed

but

205

summus,

summa, summum
highest, greatest; most important

206

superior,

superius, n.
upper, higher; previous; more effective

207

tamen

nevertheless, however, still

208

telum,

teli, n.
spear, javelin

209

tempus,

temporis, n.
time

210

tum

then, at that time

211

utor,

uti, usus sum
to use, make use of (w/ abl)

212

vallum,

valli, n
palisade of stakes on top of an embankment, rampart

213

venio,

venīre, veni, ventum
to come

214

virtus,

virtutis, f.
valor, courage; virtue

215

volo,

velle, volui
to wish, want

216

accipio,

accipere, accepi, acceptum
to receive, accept; to welcome; to hear

217

adversus,

adversa, adversum
opposite, turned toward; facing

218

aequor,

aequoris, n.
sea, sea surface; waves; plain

219

agmen,

agminis, n.
battle line, column, multitude, army

220

ago,

agere, egi, actum
to do, drive; to pursue; go on! (imperative)

221

ait

she says, he says

222

anima,

animae, f.
breath; life, existence, soul

223

annus,

anni, m.
year; season

224

antrum,

antri, n.
cave, cavern

225

aperio,

aperīre, aperui, apertum
to open, uncover, disclose, reveal

226

ara,

arae, f.
altar

227

ardo,

ardēre, arsi, arsum
to burn, blaze

228

at

but; yet, at least

229

ater,

atra, atrum
black, dark; gloomy, deadly

230

aura,

aurae, f.
air, breeze; favor, light

231

capio,

capere, cepi, captum
to seize, grasp; to form; to deceive

232

causa,

causae, f.
cause, reason, motive

233

celer,

celeris, celere
quick, swift, speedy

234

clamor,

clamoris, m.
shout, roar, applause

235

classis,

classis, f.
fleet, division; ship

236

comes,

comitis, m/f.
friends, comrade, companion

237

coniunx,

coniugis, m/f.
spouse, wife, husband

238

cor,

cordis, n.
heart, spirit, feeling

239

corripio,

corripere, corripui, correptum
to seize, snatch, grab

240

credo,

credere, credidi, creditum
to believe, trust, confide in (+dat)

241

crudelis,

crudele
cruel, crude

242

cura,

curae, f.
anxiety, distress, care, concern

243

cursus,

cursūs, m.
running, running course; haste

244

Danaus,

Danai, m.
Greek, of Danaus (a king of Greece)

245

dea,

deae, f.
goddess

246

demitto,

demittere, demisi, demissum
to drop, let down, shed

247

dolor,

doloris, m.
anguish, distress, pain

248

domus,

domūs, f.
house, home; building; family

249

dum

while (w/ indic.); until (w/ subj.)

250

etiam

also, too, even; still

251

extremus,

extrema, extremum
outermost; farthest; final

252

facio,

facere, feci, factum
to make, do; to build, produce; to grant

253

ferrum,

ferri, n.
iron; tool; spear; sword

254

finis,

finis, m.
end, boundary; territory (pl.)

255

flamma,

flammae, f.
fire, flame

256

fortis,

fortis, forte
brave, strong, courageous

257

fuga,

fugae, f.
flight, escape

258

furo,

furere, furui
to rage, rave, be out of one's mind

259

gemitus,

gemitūs, m.
groan, sighing, complaint

260

genus,

generis, n.
family, race; birth

261

gero,

gerere,gessi, gestum
to carry, to wage; to wear

262

gravis,

gravis, grave
heavy; serious; burdened; full of

263

harena,

harenae, f.
sand; beach

264

heu

(interj.)
alas

265

iacto,

iactaāre, iactavi, iactiatum
to throw out; to boast; to discuss, speak

266

idem,

eadem, idem
the same

267

immanis,

immane
huge; monstrous; frightful

268

imperium,

imperii, n.
supreme power, sovereignty

269

impono,

imponere, imposui, impositum
to put on; to place upon

270

imus,

ima, imum
deepest, the bottom of; the last

271

incipio,

incipere, incepi, inceptum
to begin, start

272

inter

between, among, during

273

interea

meanwhile

274

lacrima,

lacrimae, f.
tear

275

laetus,

laeta, laetum
happy, delighted; fertile

276

lateo,

latēre, latui
to hide, conceal, lurk

277

Libya,

Libyae, f.
Libya

278

limen,

liminis, n.
threshold; door; house

279

locus,

loci, m.
place, spot, location

280

longus,

longa, longum
long, extended; (adv.) far off

281

lumen,

luminis, n.
light; eyes (pl.)

282

lux,

lucis, f.
light, brightness; day

283

mare,

maris, n.
sea

284

metus,

metūs, m.
fear, dread, apprehension

285

miror,

mirāri, miratus sum
to wonder, be astonished

286

misceo,

miscere, miscui, mixtum
mix, mingle; to confuse

287

miser,

misera, miserum
wretched, miserable, unhappy

288

moenia,

moenium, n pl.
walls, ramparts; structures

289

moles,

molis, f.
mass, weight; difficulty; greatness

290

mons,

montis, m.
mountain, hill

291

morior,

mori, mortuus sum
to die, expire; to decay, wither

292

moveo,

movēre, movi, motum
to move, shake; to arouse, agitate

293

murus,

muri, m.
wall, city wall

294

natus,

nati, m.
son, descendant

295

nomen,

nominis, n.
name, title, fame

296

nos,

nostri, nobis, nos, nobis
we, us

297

nox,

noctis, f.
night; death

298

nubes,

nubis, f.
cloud

299

nullus,

nulla, nullum
no, none

300

numen,

numinis, n.
divine power, divinity; god, goddess

301

opus,

operis, n.
work, labor; artistic work

302

ora,

orae, f.
shore, coast; border, edge

303

oro,

orāre, oravi, oratum
to beg, plead; to pray

304

parens,

parentis, m/f.
parent

305

paro,

parāre, paravi, paratum
to prepare, arrange, make ready

306

pars,

partis, f.
part, portion; side

307

patria,

patriae, f.
homeland, native land, home

308

pes,

pedis, m.
foot

309

pietas,

pietatis, f.
loyalty, devotion, sense of duty

310

poena,

poenae, f.
punishment, penalty, penal

311

pono,

ponere, ponui, positum
to put, place; to establish

312

pontus,

ponti, m.
sea, waves

313

populus,

populi, m.
people, crowd, nation

314

porta,

portae, f.
gate, door, entrance

315

possum,

posse, potui
to be able, can

316

post

after, behind

317

premo,

premere, pressi, pressum
to press, pursue, overpower, crush

318

puer,

pueri, m.
boy, young man

319

pulcher,

pulchra, pulchrum
beautiful, handsome, noble

320

puppis,

puppis, f.
stern; ship

321

quareo,

quaerere, quaesivi, quaaesitum
to seek, look for, ask for

322

qualis,

qualis, quale
of what sort? such as, the kind of

323

quam

how, how much; than; as

324

rapio,

rapere, rapui, raptum
to grab, snatch, tear; to whirl

325

ripa,

ripae, f.
bank (of a river), shore

326

ruo,

ruere, rui, ruitum
to rush, hurry; to fall down; to plow

327

sacer,

sacra, sacrum
sacred, holy; sacrifices (n. pl)

328

saevus,

saeva, saevum
savage, fierce, ferocious

329

sanguis,

sanguinis, m.
blood, bloodshed, descendant

330

scopulus,

scopuli, m.
cliff, crag, rock; ledge

331

sedes,

sedis, f.
seat; dwelling; foundation

332

servo,

servāre, servavi, servatum
to save, guard, keep; to watch

333

sidus,

sideris, n.
constellation; sky, heavens; weather

334

silva,

silvae, f.
forest, woods

335

simul

at the same time, simultaneously

336

socius,

socii, m.
ally, friend, comrade

337

somnus,

somni, m.
sleep

338

soror,

sororis, f.
sister

339

sors,

sortis, f.
luck, lot; fate, destiny

340

spero,

sperāre, speravi, speratum
to hope; to look for, expect

341

spes,

spei, f.
hope, expectation

342

sto,

stāre, steti, statum
to stand; to be built; to linger, remain

343

subeo,

subīre, subii, subitum
to advance, approach; to enter; to go under

344

surgo,

surgere, surrexi, surrectum
to rise, get up, stand up; to ascend

345

tandem

finally, at last

346

tantum

so much, so greatly; only

347

tectum,

tecti, n.
roof, house, dwelling

348

tellus,

telluris, f.
earth, land, ground

349

telum,

teli, n.
spear, javelin; weapon

350

templum,

templi, n.
temple, sanctuary, shrine

351

tendo,

tendere, tetendi, tentum
to stretch, extend; to present; to aim

352

Teucri,

Teucrorum, m pl.
Trojans, descendants of Teucer

353

tollo,

tollere, sustuli, sublatum
to lift, raise; to erect; to extol; to destroy

354

tot

(indecl.)
so many, as many

355

totus

tota, totum
all, entire, whore

356

Troianus,

Troiana, Troianum
Trojan, of Troy

357

turbo,

tubinis, m.
whirlwind, tornado, hurricane

358

Tyrius,

Tyria, Tyrium
Tyrian, from Tyre

359

ullus,

ulla, ullum
any, anyone

360

unus,

una, unum
one; only, alone

361

varius,

varia, varium
various; variable, changing

362

vastus,

vasta, vastum
vast, immense, huge; unoccupied

363

-ve

(enclitic)
or

364

vertex,

verticis, m.
whirlpool, summit, top of head

365

vester,

vestra, vestrum
your (pl.)

366

vinco,

vincere, vici, victum
to conquer, defeat; to banish

367

vis,

vis, f.
force, violence; strength (pl.)

368

voco,

vocāre, vocavi, vocatum
to call, name, address, to invoke

369

volvo,

volvere, volui, volutum
to turn, roll; to decree; to glide; to ponder

370

vos,

vestri, vobis, vos, vobis
you (pl.)

371

vox,

vocis, f.
voice; cry, call; saying

372

vulnus,

vulneris, n.
wound, injury, blow

373

vultus,

vultūs, m.
face; appearance, expression

374

absum,

abesse, afui, afuturum
to be away, be absent, be lacking

375

Aduatuci

Aduatucorum, m pl.
Aduatuci (a Belgian people of Cimbrian origin)

376

adventus,

adventūs, m.
arrival; advance, attack

377

ager,

agri, m.
land; field

378

aliqui

aliqua, aliquod
some, any

379

animadverto,

animadvertere, animadverti, animadversum
to observe, notice

380

animus,

animi, m.
mind, spirit; heart

381

ante

before, previously

382

appello,

appellāre, appellavi, appellatum
to name, call

383

apud

at the house of, with; among

384

at

but

385

autem

however, furthermore

386

barbari,

barbarorum, m pl.
barbarians

387

Belgae,

Belgarum
Belgians

388

Brittania,

Brittaniae, m pl.
Britain

389

casus,

casūs, m.
accident, chance, event; misfortune

390

celeritas,

celeritatis, f.
speed

391

celeriter

quickly

392

certus,

certa, certum
certain, fixed

393

circiter

about, approximately

394

circumvenio,

circumvenīre, circumveni, circumventum
to surround

395

cohors,

cohortis, f.
cohort (one-tenth of a legion)

396

colloco,

collocāre, collocavi, collocatum
to arrange; to place

397

colloquor,

colloqui, collocutus sum
to speak, converse

398

communis,

communis, commune
common

399

compleo,

complēre, complevi, completum
to fill

400

complures,

complures, complura
several

401

comprehendo,

comprehendere, comprehendi, comprehensum
to seize; to catch

402

confirmo,

confirmāre, confirmavi, confirmatum
to strengthen; to establish; to confirm

403

conor,

conāri, conatus sum
to try

404

consisto,

consistere, constiti, conspectum
to stand (together); to stop, halt

405

conspicio,

conspicere, conspexi, conspectum

406

consuetudo,

consuetudinis, f.
custom

407

consuevi,

consuevisse, consuetum
to be accustomed (pf. forms w. pres. force)

408

contineo,

continēre, continui, contentum
to hold; to contain; to retain; to confine

409

controversia,

controversiae, f.
dispute, controversy

410

defero,

deferre, detuli, delatum
to bring (down); to report

411

demonstro,

demonstrāre, demonstravi, demonstratum
to show; to describe

412

desum,

deesse, defui, defuturum
to be lacking

413

deus,

dei, m.
god

414

disciplina,

disciplinae, f.
instruction; system, method

415

druides,

druidum, m pl.
Druids

416

duco,

ducere, duxi, ductum
to lead; to consider

417

dum

while (w/ indic.); until (w/ subj.)

418

duo,

duae, duo
two

419

Eburones,

Eburonum, m pl.
Eburones (a people of Belgian Gaul)

420

efficio,

efficere, effeci, effectum
to accomplish; to perform; to make, render

421

egredior,

egredi, egressus sum
to go out, come out; to disembark

422

equitatus,

equitatūs, m.
cavalry

423

etiam

also, even

424

etsi

although

425

facultas,

facultatis, f.
chance, oppurtunity

426

fere

almost; generally, usually

427

fero,

ferre, ruli, latum
to carry, bring; to bear, endure; to call, name; to report

428

filius,

filii, m.
son

429

finitimus,

finitima, finitimum
neighboring, (as a substantive) neighbor

430

fortis,

fortis, forte
brave, courageous

431

gero,

gerere, gessi, gestum
to wage, carry on; to do

432

iam

now, already

433

ibi

there, in that place

434

impedimenta,

impedimentorum, n pl.
(traveling) baggage, equipment

435

imperium,

imperii, n.
command; rule; power

436

impero,

imperāre, imperavi, imperatum
to order, command (w/ acc. of the thing and dat. of the person)

437

impetus,

impetūs, m.
attack

438

incito,

incitāre, incitavi, incitatum
to rouse, incite

439

inferro,

inferre, intuli, illatum
to bring (acc.) upon (dat.), make (war); to throw, thrust

440

interim

meanwhile

441

intermitto,

internittere, intermisi, interissum
to discontinue; to leave off; to allow to lapse

442

ita

thus so, in this way

443

itaque

and so, therefore

444

ius,

iuris, n.
law, right; authority; justice

445

ius iurandum

oath

446

licet

licēre, licuit
to be allowed, be permitted

447

longus,

longa, longum
long

448

magnitudino,

magnitudinis, f.
greatness; magnitude, size

449

maxime

very greatly, in particular, especially

450

minus

less

451

munitio,

munitionis, f.
fortification

452

nam

for

453

Nervii,

Nervorum, m pl.
Nervii (a people of Belgian Gaul)

454

nisi

unless, if not; except, only

455

nuntius,

nuntii, m.
messenger; message

456

ob

because of, on account of

457

obses,

obsidis, m/f.
hostage

458

obtineo,

obtinēre, obtinui, obtentum
to hold, occupy

459

oppugnatio,

oppugnationis, f.
attack

460

oppugno,

oppugnāre, oppugnavi, oppugnatum
attack

461

passus,

passūs, m.
pace (2 steps)

462

mille passuum

mile

463

pater,

patris, m.
father

464

paulum

a little

465

pax,

pacis, f.
peace

466

permoveo,

permovēre, permovi, permotum
to agitate; to influence, move; to provoke; to rouse

467

pertineo,

pertinēre, pertinui, pertentum
to extend; to pertain, relate

468

perturbo,

perturbāre, perturbavi, perturbatum
to disrupt; to rouse, agitate

469

pervenio,

pervenīre, perveni, perventum
to come through, arrive; (w/ ad) to reach

470

peto,

petere, petivi, petitum
to look for, see; to ask; to head for; to attack

471

plerumque

for the most part, generally

472

pono,

ponere, ponivi, ponitum
to look for, see; to ask; to head for; to attack

473

post

after

474

praemium,

praemii, n.
reward

475

praesto,

praestāre, praestiti, praestatum
to fulfill, perform; to show, display; (w/ dat) to surpass

476

premo,

premere, pressi, pressum
to press; oppress

477

privatus,

privata, privatum
private

478

profectio,

profectionis, f.
departure

479

prohibeo,

prohibēre, prohibui, prohibitum
to kepp, restrain; to prohibit

480

propter

because of, on account of

481

provincia,

provinciae, f.
province

482

pugna,

pugnae, f.
fight, battle

483

quidem

indeed, even

484

ratio,

rationis, f.
account; consideration; manner, method

485

regnum,

regni, n.
ruling power; kingdom

486

relinquo,

relinquere, reliqui, relictum
to leave, leave behind

487

Rhodanus,

Rhodani, m.
Rhone (river flowing through Lake Geneva to the Mediterranean)

488

Sequani,

Sequanorum, m pl.
Sequani (a people of Gaul, west of the Jura mountains)

489

sine

without

490

spero,

sperāre, speravi, speratum
to hope, hope for

491

spes,

spei, f.
hope

492

sub

under

493

subito

suddenly

494

subsequor,

subsequi, subsecutus sum
to follow closely

495

subsidium,

subsidii, n.
reserve troops; aid, support

496

supero,

superāre, superavi, superatum
to defeat; to prevail; to survive; to remain

497

sustineo,

sustinēre, sustinui, sustentum
to sustain; to support; to withstand; to bear, shoulder

498

tantus,

tanta, tantum
so great, such great

499

tantus...quantus

as much as

500

teneo,

tenēre, tenui, tentum
to hold, keep

501

tertius,

teria, terium
third

502

tollo,

tollere, sustuli, sublatum
to lift, raise; to take up; to remove

503

totus,

tota, totum
all, whole, entire

504

transeo,

transīre, transii, transitum
to go across, cross; to pas over

505

tres,

tres, tria
three

506

turris,

turris, f.
tower

507

ullus,

ulla, ullum
any

508

una

together

509

usus,

usūs, m.
use; practice; need; (w/ex) of use

510

uterque

utraque, utrumque
each, both

511

victoria,

victoriae, f.
victory

512

vita,

vitae, f.
life