Flashcards in Superficial & Osseous Upper Limb Deck (11):
Hand digit numbering
Thumb is #1
Pinky is #5
More precise: thumb, index, middle, ring, and little.
Arm vs forearm
Arm: between shoulder and elbow joints.
Forearm: between elbow and wrist, and can be called forearm or antebrachium
-located deep from the skin and superficial from deep fascia
-loose CT, typically containing a large amount of fat.
-allows skin and other superficial structures to be mobile.
-serves as a conduit for superficial structures: superficial veins, superficial lymphatic vessels, cutaneous nerves.
-veins coursing within superficial fascia, often visible when looking at the skin surface. (As opposed to deep veins which lie deep from the deep fascia- or perforating veins which communicate between the superficial and deep veins)
-These superficial veins are often used for intravenous access or phlebotomy.
Basilic vs Cephalic veins
Are named based on the limb being in an abducted thumbs-up position- with the cephalic located toward the head, and the basilic toward the "base"
Begins at the medial (ulnar) confluence of the dorsal venous network of the hand-ascends the forearm and arm predominately anteromedially (medial from the biceps brachii)-then passes through deep fascia near the junction of the inferior and middle thirds of the arm.
-Joins veins accompanying the brachial artery (venae comitantes)- to then begin the auxiliary vein.
Begins at the lateral (radial) confluence of the dorsal venous network of the hand, crosses the anatomical snuffbox-ascends forearm and arm predominantly anterolaterally (lateral from the biceps brachii)-then at the clavipectoral triangle penetrates deep fascia to join the terminal portion of the auxiliary vein.
-At the cubical fossa, a communication often courses from the cephalic vein, medically, to join the basilic vein-called the median cubical vein.
-Arise from lymphatic plexuses in the skin throughout the hand. The vessels then travel somewhat with the superficial veins. Superficial lymph vessels are more numerous than deep lymph vessels.
-Some accompanying the basilic vein to enter cubical lymph nodes-located proximal to the medial epicondyle and medial to the basilic vein.
-Some accompanying the cephalic vein enter deltopectoral lumph nodes.
(Eventually, they all drink to deep auxiliary lymph nodes)
-Representations along the upper limb follow a segmental pattern that is easy to recognize if the limb is in the "embryonic position" (abducted, with thumb superiorly)- thus, the lateral portion is more cranial than the medial portion.
-Cutaneous nerves have mixed their way through the brachial plexus (C5-T1) prior to distributing along the extremity- so they do not always follow this same segmental pattern as dermatomes.
Segmental distribution of individual spinal nerves along the limb.
-Maps vary amongst different sources.
-Thumb is consistently C6, index C7, and little finger C8. Posteriorly, in general, C6 will be lateral from the elbow, C7 near the elbow, and C8 medial from the elbow.