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Flashcards in Superficial Heat Deck (22)
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1

Superficial heat affects what kind of blood flow/receptors?

Cutaneous blood flow

Nerve receptors

2

Superficial heat should be used to treat conditions in what stage of healing?

SUBACUTE

3

What are the indications for superficial heat?

soft tissue healing
general relaxation
decrease joint stiffness/pain
skin conditions (ulcers)

4

What is the optimum temperature dosage for superficial heat? (time?)

Between 104-113 degrees F for 5 to 10 minutes

< 104 dgs F: no therapeutic effect (doe not stimulate cell metabolism)

> 113 dgs F: catabolism and cell death

5

What are the hemodynamic effects of superficial heat?

LOCAL VASODIALATION

Depolarizes sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibers through CUTANEOUS thermoreceptors

Release Ach, bradykinin, and nitrous oxide

6

What is the indirect of superficial heat? This is important for what specific population of patients?

vasodilation distal to area of heat application

Important for patients with diabetes

7

What are the neuromuscular effects of superficial heat?

increase in NCV
increase Pain threshold

Decrease firing of Type II gamma/muscle spindle efferents

Increase firing of Type iB fibers (GTO) to decrease muscle spasm and facilitate relaxation

8

What happens to muscle strength and endurance within the first 30 minutes vs 2 hours of heating?

Decrease in muscle strength and endurance for 30 min after heat application

Gradual increase in endurance and strength over next 2 hours

9

Superficial heat should be used with caution in pts with what diseases? Why?

Increases activity of collegenase accelerates destruction of articular cartilage

RA, acute inflammatory diseases

10

How can increase in extensibility be maintained?

Heat prior to stretching

Add functional activities that utilize new length

11

How long should heat packs be applied? How many layers are needed to prevent burns?

20 minutes (check every 5 minutes)

Patient should not lay on hot pack

6-8 layers applied
Cover counts for 2-3 layers

12

What is paraffin made of? What is the temp range?

6-7 parts wax to 1 part mineral oil

126-134 dgs F
Optimal: 125-127 dgs F

13

What is the temp range for a moist hot pack?

158-167 F

14

Paraffin provides how much more heat than water?

6x more heat because paraffin has a low SH

15

What are the three methods of paraffin application?

Continuous immersion/dip immersion: 1 dip for coating, dry, immerse up to 20 min

Dip immersion with wrapping: 6-10 dips, cover with plastic, elevate, wrap in towel for 10-15 min

Painting/brushing w/ wrapping: brush area 6-10x , dry, cover with plastic, wrap in towel for 20min

16

What are contrast baths? What is the procedure?

use alternate immersion hot/cold for 25-30 minutes

End with warm water

6, 3 minute immersions in warm water

6, 1 minute immersions in cold water

17

What are the indications for contrast baths?

Subacute trauma/chronic conditions

inflammatory conditions

hypersensitivity/hyperalgesia

18

Infrared heat is what type of modality?

Electromagnetic

19

What is fluidotherapy? Temp?

Heating of Cellex particles to fluidized state

100-118F

20

What are the contraindications of thermotherapy?

impaired mentation
impaired sensation
malignancy
thrombophlebitis
IR irradiation of eyes
over abdomen/pelvis/low back of pregnant women

21

Adverse effects of thermotherapy

burns
fainting
bleeding
skin/eye damage from IR

22

What effect does thermotherapy have on spasticity?

No effect