Flashcards in Physical Agents Deck (22)
What is a physical agent? What is the role of a physical agent?
Physical modality applied to the body for the purpose of decreasing pain, increasing ROM, tissue healing, muscle activation
COMPLEMENTS treatment, does NOT replace it
What are the 3 categories of PAs? How do they provide rehabilitative effects? List examples of each.
Thermal: transfers energy to decrease/increase tissue temp.
***Heat (paraffin, heat pack, ultrasound/diathermy) Ice
*** promote vasoconstriction or vasodilation
Mechanical: increase/decrease pressure in body
*** Traction, compression, water, sound
***US induces vibration of particles to increase friction which increases tissue temp
Electrical: alters permeability of membrane
***TENS, electrical current/stimulation
***depolarizes nerves, facilitates muscle contraction, pain control
What are the 5 general contraindications for PAs?
1. Impaired Mentation
2. Impaired Sensation
3. Pacemaker (be aware of area of application)
Ultrasound and water fall under what two types of PAs?
Mechanical and Thermal
Physical agents have a direct effect on what?
LEVEL OF IMPAIRMENT
Can improve functional limitations and disability
PAs are used in conjunction with or in preparation to:
How do PAs assist in decreasing inflammation and increasing tissue healing?
Thermal: change rate of circulation and chemical reactions
Mechanical: control motion and alter fluid flow
Electrical: alter cell function, membrane permeability and transport
What 4 things take place during the inflammatory phase?
What 4 things take place during the proliferation phase?
What 3 things take place during the maturation phase?
Collagen Fiber Orientation
What accounts for 50% of the complications of wound healing?
What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?
Stage of healing determine what two factors?
1. Treatment Goals
2. Choice of physical agent
What are the treatment goals for the initial injury stage? What PAs should be used?
Tx Goals: Control bleeding/inflammation and clean wound
PAs: Compression, cryotherapy, and hydrotherapy
What are the treatment goals for the acute stage of injury? What PAs should be used?
Tx goals: control pain, edema, bleeding, inflammation
PAs: Cryotherapy, Hydrotherapy, Electrical Stimulation, Pulsed Short Wave US
What are the treatment goals for the chronic stage of injury? What PAs should be used?
Goals: Decrease Joint stiffness, control pain, increase circulation
PAs: thermal therapy, electrical stimulation, whirlpool, hydrotherapy, compression
What are the treatment goals for the maturation stage of injury? What PAs should be used?
Goals: maintain strength, flexibility, and control scar tissue formation
PAs: water and moderate exercise, thermotherapy, ice massage and compression
What do cutaneous, musculoskeletal, and visceral pain present as?
Cutaneous: well localized, sharp, prickling, tingling
Musculoskeletal: poorly localized, dull, heavy, aching
Visceral: aching and refers superficially
What for physical Agents are most commonly used for pain reduction?
What is hypotonicity? What conditions are associated with hypotonicity? Physical agent?
Abnormally Low tone
Associated with down syndrome and poliomyelitis
Motor ES or quick ice to antagonist
The total absence of tone is known as? What PA is used?
Motor electrical stimulation