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Flashcards in Physical Agents Deck (22)
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1

What is a physical agent? What is the role of a physical agent?

Physical modality applied to the body for the purpose of decreasing pain, increasing ROM, tissue healing, muscle activation

COMPLEMENTS treatment, does NOT replace it

2

What are the 3 categories of PAs? How do they provide rehabilitative effects? List examples of each.

Thermal: transfers energy to decrease/increase tissue temp.
***Heat (paraffin, heat pack, ultrasound/diathermy) Ice
*** promote vasoconstriction or vasodilation

Mechanical: increase/decrease pressure in body
*** Traction, compression, water, sound
***US induces vibration of particles to increase friction which increases tissue temp

Electrical: alters permeability of membrane
***TENS, electrical current/stimulation
***depolarizes nerves, facilitates muscle contraction, pain control

3

What are the 5 general contraindications for PAs?

1. Impaired Mentation
2. Impaired Sensation
3. Pacemaker (be aware of area of application)
4. Pregnancy
5. Malignancy

4

Ultrasound and water fall under what two types of PAs?

Mechanical and Thermal

5

Physical agents have a direct effect on what?

LEVEL OF IMPAIRMENT

Can improve functional limitations and disability

6

PAs are used in conjunction with or in preparation to:

Therapeutic exercise

Functional Training

7

How do PAs assist in decreasing inflammation and increasing tissue healing?

Thermal: change rate of circulation and chemical reactions

Mechanical: control motion and alter fluid flow

Electrical: alter cell function, membrane permeability and transport

8

What 4 things take place during the inflammatory phase?

Vasodilation
Vasoconstriction
Clot formation
Phagocytosis

9

What 4 things take place during the proliferation phase?

Epithelialization
Neovascularization
Collagen Formation
Wound Contracture

10

What 3 things take place during the maturation phase?

Collagen Synthesis
Collagen Fiber Orientation
Healed Injury

11

What accounts for 50% of the complications of wound healing?

INFECTION

12

What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?

Pain
Heat
Redness
Swelling

13

Stage of healing determine what two factors?

1. Treatment Goals
2. Choice of physical agent

14

What are the treatment goals for the initial injury stage? What PAs should be used?

Tx Goals: Control bleeding/inflammation and clean wound

PAs: Compression, cryotherapy, and hydrotherapy

15

What are the treatment goals for the acute stage of injury? What PAs should be used?

Tx goals: control pain, edema, bleeding, inflammation

PAs: Cryotherapy, Hydrotherapy, Electrical Stimulation, Pulsed Short Wave US

16

What are the treatment goals for the chronic stage of injury? What PAs should be used?

Goals: Decrease Joint stiffness, control pain, increase circulation

PAs: thermal therapy, electrical stimulation, whirlpool, hydrotherapy, compression

17

What are the treatment goals for the maturation stage of injury? What PAs should be used?

Goals: maintain strength, flexibility, and control scar tissue formation

PAs: water and moderate exercise, thermotherapy, ice massage and compression

18

What do cutaneous, musculoskeletal, and visceral pain present as?

Cutaneous: well localized, sharp, prickling, tingling

Musculoskeletal: poorly localized, dull, heavy, aching

Visceral: aching and refers superficially

19

What for physical Agents are most commonly used for pain reduction?

Cryotherapy
Thermal therapy
Electrical stimulation
Traction

20

What is hypotonicity? What conditions are associated with hypotonicity? Physical agent?

Abnormally Low tone

Associated with down syndrome and poliomyelitis

Motor ES or quick ice to antagonist

21

The total absence of tone is known as? What PA is used?

Flaccidity

Motor electrical stimulation

22

What is hypertonicity? Explain rigidity, spasticity and clonus. What physical agent is typically used for treatment?

Rigidity is velocity INDEPENDENT resistance to stretch

Spasticity is velocity DEPENDENT resistance to stretch

Clonus is a sustained contraction in response to quick stretch

Neutral warmth or prolonged cryotherapy