Superficial Heat and Cold Flashcards Preview

DPT 6120 > Superficial Heat and Cold > Flashcards

Flashcards in Superficial Heat and Cold Deck (29):

What is the bodies normal core temperature?

37 Degrees C +/- 1 Degree
Hypothermia=Rectal temp <35 Deg C
Hyperthermia= Rectal temp >38 Deg C


What degree is skin an other peripheral tissues?

Slightly less than core temperatures at 32-34 deg C


How do you convert C to F?

C=(f-32)x 5/9
F= Cx9/5 +32


What is Heat Exchange between skin and air?

Via Evaporation: from skin and respiratory passages
Via Non- Evaporation: Radiation, conduction, and convection


What is Heat Exchange in the Body?

Countercurrent exchanged: Cool venous blood from extremities warmed by arterial blood flow from core


What is radiation?

Energy being transmitted from one surface to another- typically to heat up that surface; ex: sunlight or infrared lighting


What is Conduction?

two surfaces together that have different temperatures Ex: Hot pack on someone or cold pack


What is Convection?

Two surfaces together that are different temperatures and one surface continually moves across the other
Ex: Air blown by fan; water being moved by tissues via whirlpool


What do physiological effects on local heating depends on?

Degree of tissue temperature rises (TTR)
Gradient- greater temp gradient gives greater TTR
Specific heat- higher specific heat= more energy to heat, slower loss
Volume- of tissue exposed
Rate- heat is applied
* If slow transfer, TTR is balanced by blood carrying heat away
* If transfer faster than blood can carry heat away and TTR is too great, pain and burns result


What are the physiological effects of heat?

* Vasodilation (brings in more nutrients, picks up more waste)
* Increase metabolism ( for every 10 Deg C rise in temp, there is a 2-3 fold increase in the rate of metabolism
* Pain Relief
* Decreases Stiffness


What are some additional physiological effects of Heat?

* enhances extensibility of tissue
* reduces muscle spasms/ Decreased strenght


What are some general precautions for Heat?

* Areas of decreased sensation and innervation
* Areas of decreased circulation
* treating large volumes of tissues
* Poor thermal regulation-children and elderly
* During pregnancy
* cardiac insufficeincy
* metal in the area
* Areas of watery edema- increased risk of burn
* scars and new skin
* over areas where topical counterirritants have been recently applied


Contraindications for Heat?

* areas of arterial insufficiency or arterial disease
* Areas prone to hemorrhage
* Acute inflammatory site
* Elevating tissue temperature in area of malignancy
* Thromnophlebitis
* Impaired cognitive function


What are hot packs?

Heat transferred by conduction (superficial); considered moist heat


How many layers of towels should you use with hot packs?

6-10 Layers; always check 5-6 minutes as the heat is reaching max temperature around that time; patient should feel warmth similar to towels fresh out of the dryer


What are some precautions and Contraindications of Heat pads?

*any precautions for use of heat
* Lying on the packs, especially when treating trunk
* Heating bony prominences

* Any condition where heat is contraindicated


What are paraffin treatments?

Heat transfer by conduction


What are indications of paraffin treatment?

* Arthritis
* Chronic Orthopedic Conditions
* Joint Stiffness, contractures
* Scleroderma


What are precautions of paraffin treatment?

* Any condition for which heat is to be used with caution
* Small scratches- should be covered with gauze
* Scar tissue


What are contraindications of Paraffin treatment?

* Any condition in which heat is contraindicated
* Open wounds
* Draining lesions
* Rashes, infection which might be contagious
* New skin or recent scar tissue
* Water on skin- can cause a burng
* Jewelry- can cause a burn


How many layers of paraffin treatment should you do?

6-10 layers; 10-15 mins until paraffin cools


What is the ideal tissue temperature for treatment with Cold treatment?

15-25 Deg C (59-77 deg F)


What are some methods of cooling or removal of heat from an object?

Conduction- cold packs, ice massage, cold towels
Convection- Fan
Evaporation- Vapocoolant spray


What are the physiological Effects of Cold Treatment?

* Vasoconstriction
* Decrease metabolism
* Pain relief
* augment muscle contraction
* Can decrease muscle strength if > 30 mins


When can cold treatment be effective?

Thought to be most effective 5-10 min after injury, but can still be helpful for up to 72 hours after injury.


What are the precautions for Cold therapy?

* Skin sensation which is not normal
* previous frostbite to area
* Anesthesia from ice could mask exercise induced pain
* Prolonged applications
* Hypertensive patients
* Packs or ices stored at 0 Deg F or -12 Deg C should not be applied directly to the skin
* Decreased cognitive level
* Very old/ very young individuals
* Over the superficial main branch of a nerve


What are the contraindication of Cold therapy?

*Cold hypersensitivity
* Compromised local circulation


What kind of sensation should you have with Cold therapy?

* Cold
* Warm, burning
* Aching, tingling
* Numbness


How do you use ice massage?

3-6 inches in diameter; 5-15 minutes