Flashcards in Superficial Heat and Cold Deck (29):
What is the bodies normal core temperature?
37 Degrees C +/- 1 Degree
Hypothermia=Rectal temp <35 Deg C
Hyperthermia= Rectal temp >38 Deg C
What degree is skin an other peripheral tissues?
Slightly less than core temperatures at 32-34 deg C
How do you convert C to F?
F= Cx9/5 +32
What is Heat Exchange between skin and air?
Via Evaporation: from skin and respiratory passages
Via Non- Evaporation: Radiation, conduction, and convection
What is Heat Exchange in the Body?
Countercurrent exchanged: Cool venous blood from extremities warmed by arterial blood flow from core
What is radiation?
Energy being transmitted from one surface to another- typically to heat up that surface; ex: sunlight or infrared lighting
What is Conduction?
two surfaces together that have different temperatures Ex: Hot pack on someone or cold pack
What is Convection?
Two surfaces together that are different temperatures and one surface continually moves across the other
Ex: Air blown by fan; water being moved by tissues via whirlpool
What do physiological effects on local heating depends on?
Degree of tissue temperature rises (TTR)
Gradient- greater temp gradient gives greater TTR
Specific heat- higher specific heat= more energy to heat, slower loss
Volume- of tissue exposed
Rate- heat is applied
* If slow transfer, TTR is balanced by blood carrying heat away
* If transfer faster than blood can carry heat away and TTR is too great, pain and burns result
What are the physiological effects of heat?
* Vasodilation (brings in more nutrients, picks up more waste)
* Increase metabolism ( for every 10 Deg C rise in temp, there is a 2-3 fold increase in the rate of metabolism
* Pain Relief
* Decreases Stiffness
What are some additional physiological effects of Heat?
* enhances extensibility of tissue
* reduces muscle spasms/ Decreased strenght
What are some general precautions for Heat?
* Areas of decreased sensation and innervation
* Areas of decreased circulation
* treating large volumes of tissues
* Poor thermal regulation-children and elderly
* During pregnancy
* cardiac insufficeincy
* metal in the area
* Areas of watery edema- increased risk of burn
* scars and new skin
* over areas where topical counterirritants have been recently applied
Contraindications for Heat?
* areas of arterial insufficiency or arterial disease
* Areas prone to hemorrhage
* Acute inflammatory site
* Elevating tissue temperature in area of malignancy
* Impaired cognitive function
What are hot packs?
Heat transferred by conduction (superficial); considered moist heat
How many layers of towels should you use with hot packs?
6-10 Layers; always check 5-6 minutes as the heat is reaching max temperature around that time; patient should feel warmth similar to towels fresh out of the dryer
What are some precautions and Contraindications of Heat pads?
*any precautions for use of heat
* Lying on the packs, especially when treating trunk
* Heating bony prominences
* Any condition where heat is contraindicated
What are paraffin treatments?
Heat transfer by conduction
What are indications of paraffin treatment?
* Chronic Orthopedic Conditions
* Joint Stiffness, contractures
What are precautions of paraffin treatment?
* Any condition for which heat is to be used with caution
* Small scratches- should be covered with gauze
* Scar tissue
What are contraindications of Paraffin treatment?
* Any condition in which heat is contraindicated
* Open wounds
* Draining lesions
* Rashes, infection which might be contagious
* New skin or recent scar tissue
* Water on skin- can cause a burng
* Jewelry- can cause a burn
How many layers of paraffin treatment should you do?
6-10 layers; 10-15 mins until paraffin cools
What is the ideal tissue temperature for treatment with Cold treatment?
15-25 Deg C (59-77 deg F)
What are some methods of cooling or removal of heat from an object?
Conduction- cold packs, ice massage, cold towels
Evaporation- Vapocoolant spray
What are the physiological Effects of Cold Treatment?
* Decrease metabolism
* Pain relief
* augment muscle contraction
* Can decrease muscle strength if > 30 mins
When can cold treatment be effective?
Thought to be most effective 5-10 min after injury, but can still be helpful for up to 72 hours after injury.
What are the precautions for Cold therapy?
* Skin sensation which is not normal
* previous frostbite to area
* Anesthesia from ice could mask exercise induced pain
* Prolonged applications
* Hypertensive patients
* Packs or ices stored at 0 Deg F or -12 Deg C should not be applied directly to the skin
* Decreased cognitive level
* Very old/ very young individuals
* Over the superficial main branch of a nerve
What are the contraindication of Cold therapy?
* Compromised local circulation
What kind of sensation should you have with Cold therapy?
* Warm, burning
* Aching, tingling