Flashcards in Supportive Care During Cancer Chemotherapy Deck (8)
How do you manage fever in a patient on chemotherapy?
Children with fever must be emergently evaluated for bacterial sepsis and other invasive infection. Give broad-spectrum antibiotics as soon as cultures are obtained.
What prophylactic antibiotic is prescribed to patients undergoing chemotherapy?
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) is prescribed as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Which vaccines are contraindicated for children receiving chemotherapy?
Live viral vaccines are contraindicated during treatment.
What is tumor lysis syndrome?
Tumor lysis syndrome is a medical emergency and describes the metabolic complications of rapid cell lysis noted with the initiation of chemotherapy or with high cell turnover with certain tumors.
Which (4) electrolyte abnormalities are characteristic of tumor lysis syndrome?
Hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperuricemia.
Which three malignancies have high cell turnover which predisposes to tumor lysis even before chemotherapy initiation?
Burkitt lymphoma, T-cell ALL, and AML with hyperleukocytosis.
What therapies are used to prevent tumor lysis syndrome in at-risk patients?
Hyperhydration with fluids that do not contain potassium and administration of allopurinol, which prevents the formation of uric acid.