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PBR: Hematology > Anemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anemia Deck (132)
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1

Which type of bilirubinemia would one expect from a hemolytic process?

Indirect bilirubinemia

2

How would ferritin be used to determine total body iron levels?

Iron is stored in the bone marrow as ferritin. Therefore, ferritin levels typically reflect iron stores. However, ferritin is also an acute phase reactant and does not accurately reflect iron stores if there is ongoing inflammation.

3

If a patient presents with anemia, ice-eating, and lethargy, what underlying process would you suspect is the cause of the anemia?

Iron deficiency anemia

4

If a patient presents with anemia and distal paresthesias, what underlying process would you suspect is the cause of the anemia?

B12 deficiency anemia

5

If a patient presents with anemia and LUQ pain, what underlying process would you suspect is the cause of the anemia?

Hereditary spherocytosis with splenomegaly

6

If a patient presents with anemia and RUQ pain or intolerence of fatty foods, what underlying process would you suspect is the cause of the anemia?

Cholelithiasis from chronic hemolysis

7

If a patient presents with anemia, constipation, and cold intolerence, what underlying process would you suspect is the cause of the anemia?

Hypothyroidism

8

Which tests are recommended in the initial workup of anemia?

The evaluation starts with a CBC, retic count, and examination of the peripheral blood smear.

9

What type of anemia is present in this slide?

Iron deficiency anemia. There is thrombocytosis, microcytosis, and hypochromia.

10

What type of anemia is present in this slide?

B12 or Folate deficiency with pernicious anemia. Low-power view shows a hypersegmented neutrophil and macrocytosis.

11

List four potential etiologies of microcytic anemia.

Iron deficiency anemia, Thalassemias, Sideroblastic anemia, and anemia of chronic disease.

12

List five potential etiologies of normocytic anemia.

Acute blood loss, hemolytic anemia, anemia of chronic disease, chronic renal disease, and aplastic anemia.

13

List four potential etiologies of macrocytic anemia.

Folate deficiency, B12 deficiency, Drug-related (e.g. valproic acid), and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

14

In which type of anemia would one expect the RDW to be increased?

Iron deficiency anemia

15

In which type of anemia would one expect the MCHC to be increased?

Hereditary spherocytosis

16

Which type of anemia is shown in this slide? 

Hereditary spherocytosis. Note the lack of central pallor. The normal sized lymphocyte shows that these are microcytic spherocytes.

17

What type of cell is displayed on this slide? 

Target cells

18

What type of cell is displayed on this slide? 

Teardrop cells (dacrocytes)

19

What condition should one expect based on the findings in this slide? The arrows are pointing to what type of cell? 

Uremia. The arrows are pointing to Echinocytes/Burr cells. These are RBCs with regular, short, spiny projections. The membrane changes disappear when the uremia is corrected.

20

What condition should one expect based on the findings in this slide? The arrows are pointing to what type of cells (1) and (2)? 

This slide shows hepatorenal failure. Burr cells (1) as seen in uremia, and spur cells (2) as seen in hepatic failure.

21

What type of cell is indicated by the arrows in this slide? What condition does its presence usually indicate?

Acanthocytes (spur cells). Also some nucleated RBCs. Spur cells are RBCs with multiple irregular projections that vary in length, width, and regularity. The usual cause is hepatic failure.

22

How would one differentiate between Burr cells and Spur cells on a blood smear?

Burr cells (echinocytes) are RBCs with regular, short, spiny projections. Spur cells (acanthocytes) are RBCs with multiple irregular projections that vary in length, width, and regularity. 

23

What hematologic condition is characterized by the findings on this blood smear? 

Hereditary elliptocytosis

24

What hematologic condition is characterized by the findings on this blood smear?

Sickle Cell Disease

25

What are the blue inclusions indicated by the arrows called? When would you expect to see them on a blood smear?

Howell-Jolly bodies. They are present in patients who have had splenectomies.

26

What is the term for the finding indicated by the arrow in this image? 

Basophilic stippling

27

What condition is represented by the findings in this slide? 

Burn hemolysis. Hemolytic anemia, nucleated RBC, and spherocytosis.

28

In what three situations would one expect to see schistocytes?

Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (seen in TTP, HUS, HELLP, DIC, and occasionally vasculitis), severe burns, and valve hemolysis.

29

In what two situations would one expect to see spherocytes?

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and hereditary spherocytosis

30

In what four conditions would one expect to see target cells?

Significant liver disease, thalassemia syndromes, sickle cell disease type SC, and homozygous hemoglobin C disease.