Describe the location of the ethmoid bone
Located in the midline of the anterior cranium, at the roof of the nasal cavity, between the two orbital cavities. Contributes to the wall of the orbit and forms part of the anterior cranial fossa.
Describe the location of the sphenoid bone
Sits anteriorly in the cranium and contributes to the middle cranial fossa, lateral wall of the skull and the floor and sides of both orbits.
Describe the location of the lacrimal bone
Sits inside the bony oribit. Takes up an area of the most anterior part of the medial wall of the orbit.
Describe the location of the palatine bone
L-shaped bone which forms part of the nasal cavity and the hard palate. Located between the maxilla and the sphenoid bone.
Describe the location of the inferior concha
Sits on the nasal septum, separating the nasal cavity into two bilateral symmetrical caves.
Describe the location of the vomer
Runs vertically in the nasal cavity, separating left and right sides.
Which bony landmarks can be palpated on the anterior aspect of the skull?
- Orbital margin
- Mental process of the mandible
Which bony landmarks can be palpated on the lateral aspect of the skull?
- Angle of the mandible
- Zygomatic arch
- Mastoid process
Which bony landmarks can be palpated on the posterior aspect of the skull?
Which structure is palpable just anterior to the tragus?
Condyle of the mandible
How do you palpate temporalis?
Place your fingers on the side of your head just above the zygomatic arch and clench and relax the jaw.
How do you palpate the masseter?
Place your fingers on the mandible slightly above and anterior to the angle of the mandible and clench and relax the jaw.
What features of the TMJ permit the large range of movement?
Capsule and extracapsular ligaments
How do you palpate frontalis?
Place your finger over your eyebrow and raise the same eyebrow
How do you palpate orbicularis oculi?
Close your eyes and place your finger on the eyelid, then close your eyes tightly.
How do you palpate zygomaticus major?
Place your fingers at the edge of the zygomatic arch and smile
How do you palpate the orbicularis oris?
Close your lips and place your finger just above your top lip, then purse your lips.
Following a cerebrovascular accident, the innervation to the facial muscles may be affected, altering the movement and appearance of the face.
Describe these changes and state which nerve is involved
- Hemiplegia - paralysis of one side of the face
- Hemiparesis - weakness of one side of the face
- Affects facial nerve
How do you palpate the superficial temporal artery?
You can palpate it as it passes between the tragus and the neck of the mandible.
It is a terminal branch of the external carotid
How do you palpate the facial artery?
You can palpate it as it croses the lower border of the body of the mandible halfway between the angle and the mental tubercle.
It is a branch of external carotid
How do you palpate the supraorbital artery?
You can palpate it as it passes over the superior medial margin of the orbit.
It is a branch of the opthalmic artery.
Which division of trigeminal also carries motor fibres?
Which lymph nodes would enlarge as a result of an infection in the tongue?
- Anterior tongue infection - Submental nodes
- Lateral tongue infection - submandibular nodes
- Medial or posterior tongue infection - deep cervical nodes
How do you palpate the cricoid cartilage?
Locate the laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple) - this is the thyroid cartilage.
Pass your fingers from the thyroid cartilage downwards (3-4cm).
How do you palpate the hyoid bone?
Locate the thyroid cartilage and pass your fingers upwards to palpate the hyoid bone (3-5cm below the mandible)
Sternocleidomastoid is an important landmark for venous and lymphatic structures of the neck.
Which structures lie immediately beneath SCM?
Internal jugular vein
How do you palpate the spinous process of the axis?
Locate the occipital protuberance.
Approximately 3cm down from the occipital protuberance you should be able to palpate the spinous process of C2.
How do you palpate the common carotid artery?
Can be palpated just lateral to the thyroid cartilage and medial to SCM
Where is the surface marking of the external jugular vein?
From the angle of the mandible to the middle of the clavicle
Where is the surface marking of the internal jugular vein?
In a line from the lobe of the ear to the medial end of the clavicle