Surface anatomy of the lower limbs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Surface anatomy of the lower limbs Deck (25)
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1

How do you palpate the tubercle of the iliac crest? What does this tubercle give attachment to?

Palpate 5-7cm posterior to the ASIS. Gives attachment to the iliotibial tract.

2

How do you palpate the AIIS?

Palpate approximately 2cm above the rim of the acetabulum

3

How do you locate the greater trochanter of the femur?

Locate the most lateral part of the iliac crest and pass your fingers 10cm downwards onto the surface of the thigh.

4

How do you palpate the ischial tuberosity?

Sit down on a chair and place your hands on the gluteal regions. Large bony tuberosities can be easily felt.

5

Which structures attach to the ischial tuberosities?

  • Each of the hamstrings
  • Adductor magnus 
  • Sacrotuberous ligament

6

Where is the patella located?

Between the quadriceps tendon superiorly and the patellar tendon inferiorly

7

How do you palpate the tibial tuberosity?

Pass your fingers down the patellar tendon

8

Which other tubercle is present on the medial side of the femur?

Adductor tubercle

9

How do you palpate the head of the fibula?

Palpate approximately 1cm posteriolateral to the lateral condyle of the tibia.

10

How do you palpate the sustentaculum tali?

Palpate the tip of the medial malleolus and then pass your fingers inferiorly by 1cm.

11

How do you palpate the peroneal tubercle of the lateral side of calcaneous?

Place your fingers on the lateral malleolus and move your fingers forwards and downwards 1cm.

12

Which nerve roots does the achillies tendon reflex test?

S1

13

How do you palpate the tendon of tibialis anterior?

Dorsiflex the ankle and locate the most medial tendon

14

How do you find the small extensors of the foot?

Less easy to palpate but you may be able to see a slight swelling on the dorsal aspect ot the foot, 2cm anterior to the lateral malleolus.

15

How do you palpate the femoral artery?

Palpable in the groin, just below the midpoint of the inguinal ligament. 

It lies relatively superficial in the femoral triangle but then runs under sartorius, through the adductor hiatus and becomes the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa.

16

How do you palpate the popliteal artery?

This vessel lies deep in the popliteal fossa and is normally difficulat to palpate. 

To aid detection of a pulse, bend the knee to 45° to release the tension of the surrounding tendons.

17

How do you palpate the anterior tibial artery?

Branch of the popliteal artery that lies deep in the anterior compartent of the leg.

It becomes palpable on the anteromedial aspect of the ankle  joint between the tendons of extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorim longus.

It forms several branches to supply the dorsum of the foot, including dorsalis pedis artery.

18

How do you palpate dorsalis pedis artery?

Palpable in the space between the 1st and 2nd metatarsals

19

How do you palpate the posterior tibial artery?

Lies deep in the posterior compartment, under gastrocnemius and soleus. 

It is palpable posterior to the medial malleolus between the tendons of flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus (medial to the tibial nerve). 

20

How do you palpate the great saphenous vein?

Easy to locate at or near the medial malleolus, even in individuals with a higher BMI.

21

How do you palpate the small saphenous vein?

Can be easily located at or near the lateral malleolus, though in some infividuals it may be palpable on the posterior surface of the calf, once they have been standing for long periods of time.

22

How do you palpate the tibial nerve?

Lies within the popliteal fossa but then passes deep to gastrocnemius and soleus in the calf.

It becomes palpable at the posterior surface of the medial malleolus before passing into the sole of the foot to form the medial and lateral plantar nerves.

23

How do you palpate the common peroneal nerve?

Formed from the sciatic nerve in the thigh and passes down the medial side of the tendon of biceps femoris. 

It becomes palpable as it passes around the head of the fibula before dividing into deep and superficial peroneal nerves.

24

How do you palpate the deep peroneal nerve?

Lies deep in the anterior compartment of the leg until it crosses the anterior surface of the ankle. 

It can be palpated lateral to dorsalis pedis artery, between the tendons of extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus.

25

How do you palpate the superficial peroneal nerve?

Lies on the anterolateral aspect of the leg and becomes palpable medial to the anterior border of the lateral malleolus.