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Flashcards in survey of the living primates Deck (21)
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1

quadrupedal

using all four limbs in locomotion

2

brachiation

arm swinging

3

anthropoids

old scheme
monkeys, apes and humans

-larger brain and body size
-reduced reliance on sense of smell, increased reliance on vision
-greater degree of color vision
-bony plate at back of eye socket
-blood supply to brain different from lemurs and lorises
-fused mandible
-longer gestation and maturation
-generalized dentition
-increased parental care
-more utual grooming

4

prosimians

old scheme:
lemurs, lorises and tarisers

5

old classification scheme

based on evolutionary systematics
prosimians and anthropoids

6

new classification scheme

based on cladistics
strepsirhines and haplorhines

7

strepsirhines

new scheme:
lemurs and lorises

-most primitive
-more reliance on olfaction as evidenced by moist fleshy pad, or rhinarium

8

haplorhines

tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans

9

monkeys

reperesent about 85% of all primates

2 groups:
new world monkeys (NWMs)
Old world monkeys
(OWMs)

10

new world monkeys

inhabit mexico through upper right half of south america

11

Platyrrhine

new world
-70 species found in wide range of arboreal environments
-outward facing notstrels (flat nosed)
-all diurnal except owl monkey
-quadrupedal
-most live in mixed-sex groups

12

old world monkeys

inhabit lower half of africa and lower segment of Asia

13

catarhine

old world monkeys
-habitat ranges from tropical jungle to semiarid desert to seasonally snow covered areas
-cercopithecidae
--cercopitecines: More omnivorous with cheek pouches, arboreal, mostly in africa
--colobines: mainly eat leaves
-most are quadrupedal and primarily arboreal
-ischial callosities, hardeed skin on butt
-sexual dimorphism

14

difference between apes and humans from monkeys

-larger body size
-absence of a tail***
-lower back shorter and more stable
-arms longer than legs
-anatomical differences in shoulder joint
-more complex behavior
-more complex brain and cognitive abilities
-increased period of infant development and dependency

15

gibbons and siamangs

-tropical areas of southeast asia
-adaptations for brachiation may be related to feeding while hanging from branches
--long arms, curved fingers, short thumbs, powerful shoulder muscles
-diet is largely fruit with leaves, flowers, and insects
-basic social unit is a monogamous pair and offspring
-males and females delineate territories with whoops and "songs"

16

orangutans

-found in heavily forested areas of Borneo and Sumatra
-almost completely arboreal
-males = 200 pounds
-females=100 pounds
-Pronounced sexual dimorphism
-Principallly frugivorous (feed-eating)

17

Gorillas (gorilla gorilla)

-largest of living primates
-confined to forested regions of central africa
-males weigh up to 400 pounds, females 200 pounds
-primarily terrestrial, using a posture called (knuckle-walking)
-Groups consist of one large silverback male, a few adult females, and sub-adult offspring

18

chimps

-found in equatorial africa
-anatomically similar to gorillas particularly in limb proportions and upper-body shape
-locomotion includes knuckle walking on the ground and brachiation on trees
-eat a variety of plant and animal foods
-large, fluid communities of as many as 50 individuals

19

bonobos

-only found in south of Zaire river
-Population is believed to only nuber few thousand indiv.
-explotis same foods as chimps, including occasional small mammals
-male-female bonds constitute societal core
-sexuality includes frequent copulations throughout female's estrous cycle

20

humans

-only living species in family hominidae
-human teeth are typical primate teeth
-dependence on vision for orientation to world
-flexible limbs and grasping hands
-omnivorous diet
-cog. abilities are result of big brains
-bipedal

21

reason for endangered primates

-habitat destruction
-hunting
-live capture for local trade or export