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1

derived traits

distinct traits
-orthograde: upright body position
-forward facing eyes

2

evolution during cenozoic

time period divided into 7 epochs:
1) paleocene
2) Eocene
3) Oligocene
4) Miocene
5) Pliocene
6) pleistocene
7) Holocene

3

Paleocene

65 mya; primate-like mammals

4

Eocene

55.8 mya; first true primates (prosimians)

5

oligocene

33 mya; precursors to monkeys and apes emerge

6

Miocene

23 mya; monkeys and apes emerge, first humanlike creatures appear

7

pliocene

5.3mya; early humans diversify

8

pleistocene

1.8 mya; early homo develops

9

Holocene

(0.01 mya; present epoch)

10

last common ancestor

hypothetical species that was last to exist before diverging into meyriad of sister orders related to primates

11

crown group

all taxa that come after major speciation events

12

stem groups

taxa in a clade before major speciation event

13

origin of primates

between 90 and 65 mtya

14

altiatlasius

-a possible earliest true primate known from a handful of teeth from morocco
-no other terrestrial mammalian fossils are known from this time in africa
-comparison are difficult

15

Eocene Euprimates

-forward facing eyes
-greater encephalization
-postorbital bar
-nails, not claws
-opposable big toe

16

Eociene primates features

-forward eye rotation
-small eye socket
-weighed less than 1 ounce

17

y-5 molar pattern

molars that have 5 cusps, oriented in a manner forming a y-shaped groove pattern on the surface

18

bilophodonty

molars that have 4 usps, oriented in 2 parallel rows, characteristic of old world monkeys

19

paleoprimatologist

a person who specializes in the study of the nonhuman primate fossil record

20

old world monkey characteristics (relative to ape)

-narrow nose and palate
-smaller brain
-bilophodont molars
-smaller average body size
-longer torso
=shorter arms
=tail

21

ape characteristic (relative to old world monkeys)

-broader nose and palate
-larger brain
-y-5 molars
-larger average body size
-shorter torso
-longer arems
-no tail