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Flashcards in Sustainable Sites Deck (81):
1

Define species factor.

A constant used to modify the evapotranspiration rate to reflect the biological features of a specific plant species.

2

Define car share membership program.

A car share membership program is a program where cars can be rented on an hourly or daily basis to reduce automobile ownership.

3

The Heat Island Effect can increase the temperature in an urban area above the temperature in nearby rural areas by _____.

10 degrees fahrenheit

4

List two site-related sustainability concepts that can be aided by open grid paving systems used in a parking lot.

  • Stormwater Management
  • Heat Island Effect

5

The Full Time Equivalent (FTE) value if a project has 1 full-time (40 hours a week) employee and 6 part-time (20 hours a week) employees is ______.

4

6

List the two standards that establish the kind of vehicles that qualify as low-emitting and fuel-efficient.

  • California Air Resources Board ZEV
  • American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) Green Book

7

The function of bioswales is to help with _____.

stormwater management

8

When it does not define open space, local zoning is measured by the _____.

area within the property boundary minus the development footprint.

9

Define SRI.

SRI, or Solar Reflectance Index, is a value that incorporates both solar reflectance and emittance in a single value to represent a material's temperature in the sun.

10

Define emissivity in terms of outer building materials.

Emissivity is the ratio of radiation emitted by a surface to radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature.

11

Define a building footprint as it applies to LEED rating systems.

Building footprint is the area of the site occupied by the building structure, not including parking lots, landscapes, and other nonbuilding facilities.

12

Define adapted and native vegetation.

Adapted and native vegetation are plants indigenous to a locality or plants that are adapted to the local climate, which are not considered invasive species.

13

Define a brownfield.

A brownfield is real property whose use may be complicated by the presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.

14

The main intent of providing a high ratio of open space to development footprint is to ____.

promote biodiversity

15

The green score necessary for a vehicle to be considered fuel-efficient is __.

40

16

Another term for albedo is _____.

solar reflectance

17

Define transient occupants/visitors.

Transient occupants/visitors are expected to only spend an hour or so at the building, not the whole day.

18

How does asphalt affect the heat island effect?

Typical asphalt is a very dark surface that increases the heat island effect.

19

List two strategies for decreasing single rider, conventional automobile use.

  • Provide only the amount of parking required by the zoning code.
  • Locate the project near mass transit.

20

List two strategies for reducing stormwater runoff volume.

  • Minimize the building footprint.
  • Use bio-retention.

21

List three types of vehicle that qualify as an alternative-fuel vehicle for the purposes of LEED.

  • hydrogen-powered
  • electric-powered
  • hybrid (gas-electric)

22

List two strategies that qualify as providing preferred parking for alternative-fuel vehicles.

  • Offer a significant discount on parking passes.
  • Provide a space that is as close to the building as possible.

23

List two strategies for minimizing the non-roof heat island effect.

  • Use open grid paving.
  • Shade hardscape with photovoltaic panels (offsets higher energy use from heat island effect).

24

List two primary strategies for reducing the heat island effect with regards to roofs.

  • Use materials with a high solar reflectance index.
  • Use vegetated roofs.

25

The loss of _____ is the most significant on-site consequence of erosion.

topsoil

26

Define turbidity in terms of sustainability.

Turbidity reduces sunlight penetration into water and leads to reduced photosynthesis in aquatic vegetation, causing lower oxygen levels that cannot support diverse communities of aquatic life.

27

Define remediation as it applies to sustainability.

Remediation is the process of cleaning up a contaminated site by physical, chemical, or biological means. This is typically applied to contaminated soil and groundwater.

28

_____ is an evaluation of a site's aboveground and subsurface characteristics, including structures, geology, and hydrology.

Site assessment

29

The best strategy for selecting a building site is to choose a _____ site.

previously developed

30

What is the most effective means to meet the requirements of the Endangered Species Act and to minimize developmental impacts on indigenous wildlife?

Habitat preservation

31

Which organization addresses threatened and endangered wildlife and plants and maintains a list of the country's native plants and animals that are candidates for addition to the federal list.

US Fish and Wildlife Service

32

How is building density determined?

Building density is the floor area of the building divided by the total area of the site (sq ft. per acre).

33

Redevelopment of ______ provides an alternative to developing on undeveloped areas and decreases the overall environmental impact of development.

brownfield sites

34

_____ environmental site assessment is an investigation that collects original samples of soil, groundwater, or building materials to analyze for quantitative values of various contaminants.

Phase II

35

Define in situ remediation in terms of sustainability.

In situ remediation involves treating contaminants in place using injection wells, reactive trenches, or other technologies that take advantage of the natural hydraulic gradient of groundwater.

36

Bicycle racks and/or storage should be secured within _____ yards of a building entrance for at least __% of all building users.

• 200 • 5

37

Define hybrid vehicles.

Hybrid vehicles use a gasoline engine to drive an electric generator and use the electric generator and/or storage batteries to power electric motors that drive the vehicle's wheels.

38

To earn LEED credits, carpool/vanpool spaces must equal the ______ x 5%

number of parking spaces

39

These are all examples of what?

  • water bodies
  • soil conditions
  • ecosystems
  • trees and other vegetation

Natural site elements

40

_____ cannot contribute to the sustainable site credits requirements even if they meet the definition of native or adapted vegetation.

Monoculture plantings (e.g., turf)

41

For urban projects with few landscape opportunities, consider installing a _____ roof.

vegetated, or green

42

In installing vegetated roofs, a _____ engineer should confirm that the roof is designed to support the added weight of plant beds.

structural

43

Define invasive plants in terms of sustainability.

Invasive plants are nonnative to the ecosystem and likely to cause harm once introduced. These plants are characteristically adaptable and aggressive, have a high reproductive capacity, and tend to overrun the ecosystems they enter.

44

Define retention ponds in terms of sustainability.

Retention ponds capture stormwater runoff and clear it of pollutants before being released. Some retention pond designs use gravity only; others use mechanical equipment.

45

List the parts of a vegetated roof.

  • waterproof and road-repellent membrane
  • drainage system
  • filter cloth
  • lightweight growing medium
  • plants

46

These are all examples of what?

  • pocket parks
  • accessible roof decks
  • plazas
  • courtyards

Open urban space

47

The best way to minimize stormwater runoff volume is to reduce the amount of _____ surface area.

impervious

48

Define an aquifer in terms of sustainability.

An aquifer is an underground water-bearing rock formation that supplies groundwater, wells, and springs.

49

Stormwater Best Management Practices must be capable of removing __% of the average annual total suspended solids (TSS) load based on existing monitoring reports.

80

50

List three distinct climates in the United States that influence the nature and amount of annual rainfall.

  • humid watersheds
  • semi-arid watersheds
  • arid watersheds

51

As areas are developed and urbanized, _____ is reduced, resulting in increased stormwater runoff that is transported via urban gutters, pipes, and sewers to receiving waters.

surface permeability

52

List three sources of stormwater pollution.

  • atmospheric deposition
  • vehicle fluid leaks
  • mechanical equipment wastes

53

According to the US Department of Agriculture, ______ is that which has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and is available for these uses.

prime farmland

54

The development footprint is composed of the building footprint and _____.

site hardscape

55

Development density is calculated by dividing gross building square footage by the _____.

project site area

56

Bike racks must be secure and covered to protect from _____ and _____.

  • theft
  • weather

57

Define stormwater in terms of sustainability.

Stormwater is rainfall and snowmelt that flows over topography into bodies of water, public drainage systems, or percolates ground (infiltration).

58

List the two types of illumination.

  • artificial lighting
  • natural lighting

59

List two strategies for minimizing the light escaping a building at night.

  • auto shutoffs
  • shielding

60

Outdoor shielding is also called _____.

cut off

61

The _____ is a constant used to modify the evapotranspiration rate to reflect the biological features of a specific plant.

species factor

62

A _____ is a program where cars can be rented on an hourly or daily basis to reduce automobile ownership.

car share membership program

63

The _____ can increase the temperature in an urban area above the temperature in nearby rural areas by 10 degrees.

heat island effect

64

When it does not define open space, _____ is measured by the area within the property boundary minus the development footprint.

local zoning

65

_____ is a value that incorporates both solar reflectance and emittance in a single value to represent a material's temperature in the sun.

SRI or Solar Reflectance Index

66

_____ is the ratio of radiation emitted by a surface to radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature.

Emissivity

67

_____ is the area of the site occupied by the building structure, not including parking lots, landscapes, and other nonbuilding facilities.

Building footprint

68

_____ are indigenous to a locality or are adapted to the local climate, and are not considered invasive species.

Adapted and native vegetation

69

A _____ is real property whose use may be complicated by the presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.

brownfield

70

_____ are expected to only spend an hour or so at the building, not the whole day.

Transient occupants/visitors

71

The loss of topsoil is the most significant on-site consequence of _____.

erosion

72

_____ reduces sunlight penetration into water and leads to reduced photosynthesis in aquatic vegetation, causing lower oxygen levels that cannot support diverse communities of aquatic life.

Turbidity

73

_____ is the process of cleaning up a contaminated site by physical, chemical, or biological means. This is typically applied to contaminated soil and groundwater.

Remediation

74

Define site assessment in terms of sustainability.

Site assessment is an evaluation of a site's aboveground and subsurface characteristics, including structures, geology, and hydrology.

75

_____ is the floor of the building divided by the total area of the site (sq ft. per acre).

Building density

76

_____ involves treating contaminants in place using injection wells, reactive trenches, or other technologies that take advantage of the natural hydraulic gradient of groundwater.

In situ remediation

77

_____ use a gasoline engine to drive an electric generator and use the electric generator and/or storage batteries to power electric motors that drive the vehicle's wheels.

Hybrid vehicles

78

_____ plants are nonnative to the ecosystem and likely to cause harm once introduced. These plants are characteristically adaptable and aggressive, have a high reproductive capacity, and tend to overrun the ecosystems they enter.

Invasive

79

_____ capture stormwater runoff and clear it of pollutants before its release. Some designs use gravity only; others use mechanical equipment.

Retention ponds

80

An _____ is an underground water-bearing rock formation that supplies groundwater, wells, and springs.

aquifer

81

_____ is rainfall and snowmelt that flows over topography into bodies of water, public drainage systems, or percolates ground (infiltration).

Stormwater