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Flashcards in Sustainibility 2 Deck (75):
1

What is oil sand

Oil sand is oil which is trapped under the earths surface

2

Where are major oil sand deposits found

Canada, Venezuela, Malagasy, Albania, Trinidad, Russia, Romania, United States

3

Where is Canada’s oil sands found

Found in Alberta

4

How many barrels of oil do Alberta’s oil sands hold

1.7 trillion barrels of oil

5

Why is Canada one of the top two energy users in the world

Cold northern temperatures
Small population spread out
More transportation
Energy is cheap and wasted

6

Percent of conventional energy used per year

Ninety eight

7

Percent of oil energy used per year

Thirty nine

8

Percent of electrical energy used per year

Twenty four

9

Percent of natural gas energy used per year

Thirty five

10

Percent of other energy used per year

Two

11

Renewable energy

Replaced after consumption
Solar
Wind

12

Non renewable

Limited and cannot be replaced once used
Oil
Natural gas
Coal

13

Conventional

Common in Canada
Flowing water
Fossil fuels
Uranium
Natural gas

14

Fossil fuels

Include coal, oil, and natural gas
Remains of plants and animals
Found in sedimentary rock

15

Alternative

Haven’t been around for a long time
New ideas
Solar, wind, tidal, biomass, geothermal, hydrogen

16

Mining

Process of extracting rocks

17

Mineral

Naturally occurring pure non living substance found in rocks

18

Global warming

Gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earths atmosphere

19

Green house gas

Gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation

20

Kyoto protocol

International treaty among industrialized nations that sets mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions

21

Developed country

Industrialized
More economically developed
More technology advancement

22

Developing country

Poor agricultural country that is become more advanced economically and socially

23

Metallic minerals

Gold copper iron

24

Fossil fuels

Natural gas coal oil

25

Industrial minerals

Diamond soapstone asbestos

26

Where do we mine metallic minerals

Ontario, Quebec, bc

27

Where do we mine fossil fuels

Alberta, bc, Saskatchewan

28

Where do we mine industrial minerals

Alberta Saskatchewan Ontario Quebec

29

Where do we mine in Canada

Country wide
Mainly out west
Away from major cities

30

Canada is ranked —— in the world for production of minerals

Third

31

Canada exports —— of all production

Eighty

32

Strip mining

Used to mine oil coal and other minerals
Close to the surface
Top layers

33

Open pit mining

Mine minerals found near surface but may extend deeper into the ground

34

Underground mining

Extract mineral ores located deep within the earth

35

What is fracking short for

Hydraulic fracturing

36

Fracking is the solution to what problem,

Recovering vast quantities of natural gas that couldn’t be recovered by wells

37

Fracking and the environment

Better for environment than coal burning but contaminated groundwater produces air pollution and destruction of farmland

38

Fracking

Process of injecting liquid at high pressures into rock to force open and extract oil or gas

39

Farming used to be a ...

family based industry. Yielding crops like:
potatoes and corn

40

In the 1800s farming became easier. Why?

New mechanized methods
powered by oxen, horse
+ implementation of crop rotation and fertilization
= larger yeilds

41

Farming today

Family farming has been replaced by big business
Workers replaced by machines
farming thousands instead of hundreds of of acres

42

What drives agriculture

1. Climate
2. Soil
3. Biology
4. Topography

43

Variables of farming

Heat and moisture

44

Growing degrees days

determined by the number of degrees and the average temperature exceeding 6 degrees C on a given day

45

Growing season

number of days in which crops can ripen

46

Frost free period

number of days between last frost in spring and first frost in fall

47

What must farmers know the difference between and why

perception and evapotranspiration
because it allows the farmer to gauge the levels of irrigation

48

intensive farming

expensive value of land
is in proximity to higher population density areas near cities or towns
has high competition

49

Extensive farming

Not expensive land value
In proximity to low density populations where there is lots of land
Less competition than intensive

50

Intensive farming definition

a lot of money and labour are used to increase the yield that can be obtained per area of land. The use of large amounts of pesticides for crops, and of medication for animal stocks is common.

51

Extensive farming definition

agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed.

52

What caused change in the agricultural industry

mechanization

53

What did the changes in the agricultural industry lead to

increased size of farms
decreased number of workers

54

Why is agriculture important in Canada

3% labor force
20% labor related to agriculture
Trades
Economy

55

Wrongs of animal farming

- Dangerous working conditions
- Manure in the meat
- Antibiotic overuse
- Growth hormones
- Lies about where food comes from
- Mad cow disease
- Animal cruelty

56

% of fossil fuels

70%

57

% of coal (fossil fuels)

52%

58

% of Natural gas (fossil fuels)

15%

59

% of oil (fossil fuels)

3%

60

% of nuclear

19%

61

% of Hydro electricity

9%

62

% of wind, geothermal, tidal

0.5%

63

How is energy produced

Generators convert mechanical energy into electric energy
Power stations rotate turbines providing mechanical energy

64

solar enegy

Pros - Free, unlimited, environmentally friendly
Cons - Not efficient, expensive set up
Source - the sun

65

Geothermal energy

Pros - Free source, unlimited, environmentally friendly
Cons - Expensive set up
Source - Natural heat from the land

66

Hydro

Pros - Cheap, environmentally friendly, recreational
Cons - Flooding impacts, expensive set up
Source - Moving river water

67

Wind

Pros - Free source, environmentally friendly
Cons - Expensive set up, eyesore, bird deaths, inconsistent
Source - Moving air

68

Nuclear

Pros - Not expensive, lots
Cons - Safety concerns, expensive set up, possible weapons
Source - Splitting atoms

69

Fossil Fuels

Pros - Not expensive to set up, readily available
Cons - Not environmentally friendly, not renewable
Source - Burning coal, oil or natural gas

70

Biomass

Produced by combusting biomass materials
- wood, peat and manure

71

Joule

metric unit used to mesure energy

72

Anticlinal Traps

Dome shaped structure of rock layers created by folding
oil is often found inside

73

Oil sands

mixture of oil sand and water

74

Bitumen

found in deposits such as oil sands

75

Power grid

system of electrical power that connects large generating stations to building where people use energy