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Flashcards in Sweat glands Dan Deck (87):
1

which condition are exacerbated by sweating?

Bromhidrosis
Susceptability to development of contact dermatitis
Miliaria
Keratolysis Exfoliativa
Juvenile Plantar dermatosis
Transient Acantholytic dermatosis
Hailey-Hailey disease

2

Which genoderms can cause hyperhidrosis?

Palmoplantar keratoderma
Pachyonychia Congenita
Congenital Icthyosiform Erythroderma (bullous & non-bullous)
Dyskeratosis Congenita
Nail Patella syndrome
EB simplex>junctional
Apert syndrome
Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis
Pachydermoperiostosis

NB these are the major cortical causes of secondary hyperhidrosis along with
Hereditary Sensory & autonomic neuropathies

3

What are the causes of central hypothalamic hyperhidrosis?

Infection, febrile illnesses
Malignancies - lymphoma, phaeo, carcinid
Vasomotor - SLE, RA, Raynauds, MI, reflex symp dyst
Neurologic - abscess, tumour, stroke
Drugs - alcohol, opiates, NSAIDs, catecholamines
Others - POEMS syndrome, diabetic neuropathy

4

Which genoderms can cause hypohidrosis?

Ectodermal Dysplasias
Incontinentia Pigmenti
Fabry disease
Bazex

5

What skin conditions cause obstruction of sweat glands?

Ichthyoses
Psoriasis
Eczematous dermatoses
Bullous diseases

6

T/F
Eccrine glands open directly to skin surface

True
apocrine glands open into a hair follicle

7

Where are apoeccrine glands found?

In the axilla in adults

8

Which sites have no eccrine glands?

lips, ear canal, clitoris and lab minora

9

T/F
sweat glands become fully functional about 1 year of age

False
age 2

10

T/F
adrenergic synapses innervate sweat glands

False
sympathetic innervation but synapses are muscarinic cholinergic not adrenergic
however ciculating catecholamines also stimulate sweat glands

11

Which 3 higher centres control sweating centrally?

-hypothalamic (thermal)
-medullary (gustatory)
-cortical (mental/emotional)

12

T/F
Primary hyperhidrosis may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fasion

True

13

What are the diagnostic criteria for primary hyperhidrosis?

1. Focal, visible excessive sweating
2. Present for 6 months or more
3. No secondary cause identified
4. At least 2 of;
At least one episode per week
Bilateral and symmetrical
Onset less than 25 yrs old
Impairs ADLs
Stops when sleeping
Fam Hx

14

T/F
palpmoplantar hyperhidrosis may start in childhood

True
usually childhood or puberty
axillary HH doesnt start until puberty

15

T/F
axillary hyperhidrosis is more common than volar (palmoplantar)

False
slightly less common

16

T/F
axillary hyperhidrosis is associated with body odour

False
excess sweat is eccrine and bromhidrosis is rare

17

T/F
Craniofacial hyperhidrosis is the same as gustatory sweating

False
Is excess sweating of head presenting in middle age
Triggered by heat, exercise, eating

18

What are the broad causes of secondary hyperhidrosis?

Central (CNS)
-hypothalamic (thermal)
-medullary (gustatory)
-cortical (mental/emotional)
Peripheral nerves
sweat glands

19

T/F
Frey's syndrome occurs in the distribution of the maxillary nerve (CNV2)?

False
Usually in distribution of auriculotemporal nerve - temple and temporal scalp; branch of CNV3
Chorda tympani syndrome is variant – sweating along jaw and chin

20

T/F
Frey's syndrome occurs in 5% of pts undergoing parotid surgery

False
40%

21

Other than parotid surgery what can cause Frey's syndrome?

syringomyelia
encephalitis
sympathectomy, thyroidectomy
lung cancer
subclavian aneurysm

22

What spinal cord pathology can cause secodnary hyperphidrosis?

SSS for Secondary Spinal Sweating
Spinal injury
Syringomyelia
Syphylis - Tabes dorsalis

23

T/F
in spinal injuries causing hyperhidrosis there is often loss of thermal sweating in skin below the level of the spinal injury

True

24

What is autonomic dysreflexia?

due to spinal injury at or above T6
During attacks there is massive sympathetic discharge causing sweating above the level of cord transaction + hypertension, tachy or brady cardia, flushing, headache, piloerection and paraesthesias
In these pts, direct stimulation of a sympathetic axon can cause sweating in a localised area of skin
Can be triggered by inflammatory mediators from skin conditions inc psoriasis and dermatitis

25

What are the common causes of compensatory hyperhidrosis

Miliaria – recurrent miliaria rubra or profunda leads to non-functioning sweat glands of trunk often followed by comp hyperhidrosis of face

Diabetes – autonomic neuropathy causes hypo or anhidrosis esp of legs. Comp hyperhidrosis can be gustatory on face and neck or thermal on back

Post sympathectomy (including for hyperhidrosis)

26

what is cold erythema?

rare condition where cold causes pain, erythema and central area of hyperhidrosis

27

which conditions can cause hyperhidrosis due to abnormalities of the eccrine glands?

Eccrine naevi
Palmoplantar keratoderma
Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma
Maffucci syndrome
AV fistula
Klippel-Trenauney syndrome
Glomuvenous malformation
Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome
Granulosis rubra nasi (see later)
Pretibial myxoedema

28

What is the grading of volar hyperhidrosis?

Mild – moist palm or sole, no visible sweat droplets
Morerate – sweating involving distal fingers
Severe – dripping sweat

29

What is the grading of axillary hyperhidrosis?

Assess Size of sweat stain on clothes;
20cm severe

30

How is the starch iodine test performed?

Apply iodine as 3.5% in alcohol to skin and allow to dry
Brush on starch powder (cornstarch) or paint on starch in castor oil
Mixture turns blue-black at sites of sweating

31

T/F
primary volar and axillary hyperhidrosis gets worse with age

False
often resolve after age 25

32

what is treatment ladder for hyperhidrosis?

Antiperspirants
o 20% aluminium chloride hexahydrate (Driclor)
o Zirconium salts – can help axillae but not volar surfaces
Topical anticholinergics
o 0.5% glycopyrronium bromide cream for gustatory hyprhidrosis
o 2% glycopyrronium aqueous solution for scalp hyperhidrosis
Topical aldehydes
o 1% formalin (formaldehyde) soaks for plantar hyperhidrosis (not for other sites)
o Gulteraldehyde 10% buffered solution pH 7.5 swabbed onto feet 3x per week
Iontophoresis
o Can use tap water or glycopyrollate
Oral anticholinergics
o Propanthelene bromide – 15mg-150mg daily
o Glycopyrrolate – 1-2mg BD
o Oxybutinin – 1.25-5mg
Beta blockers - worsens if used long term
Clonazepam - if anxiety related
BoTox - axillary of volar
MiraDry microwave device
Surgery
o Excision of sweat gland containing axillary skin
o Destruction/removal of glands;curettage, liposuction
o Sympathectomy - VATS procedure
CBT - if anxiety related

33

T/F
Fabrys disease causes hypohidrosis

True
but can also cause secondary hyperhidrosis due to autonomic neuropathy
Sjogren's also can cause hypohidrosis from direct destruction of glands and secondary hyperhidrosis due to autonomic neuropathy

34

What are the causes of sweat gland destruction?

Tumour eg. lymphoma
Scleroderma or morphoea
Sjogrens syndrome
GVHD
Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans
Deep burns
XRT
Drugs - 5FU, topiramate, topical aldehydes, aluminium slats or zirconium salts

35

What is Ross's syndrome?

widespread hypohidrosis
w/ patchy hyperhidrosis
+ Holmes-Adie syndrome
(myotonic pupil and loss of deep tendon reflexes)
pupil has irreg outline and sluggish light reflex

36

what conditions cause hypohidrosis by peripheral/autonomic neuropathy?

Many potential causes e.g. DALE
Diabetes
Amyloidosis
Leprosy
Ethanol (alcoholisim)
Also
Fabry's
Sjogren's

37

How is hypohidrosis managed?

Treat cause/stop drug if possible
Keep cool – avoid overheating
For disorders of keratinisation with anhidrosis treat aggressively with keratolytics with aim to restore sweating
Spray water can help cooling

38

Regarding Miliaria crystalina;
who gets it?
what body sites?
what is the level of sweat duct obstruction?

Neonates under 2 wks
- Others in hot climates
Face and trunk
stratum corneum

39

Regarding Miliaria rubra;
who gets it?
what body sites?
what is the level of sweat duct obstruction?

Neonates, children, adults esp in hot climates
Neck and upper trunk
Mid epidermis

40

Regarding Miliaria profunda;
who gets it?
what body sites?
what is the level of sweat duct obstruction?

Adults in hot climates on exertion only
- Often follows several episodes of Miliaria rubra
Trunk and prox limbs
DEJ

41

T/F
Miliaria crystalina is the most common type of miliaria

False
Rubra is
AKA ‘prickly heat’

42

T/F
Periporitis is a complication of any type of Miliaria

True in theory
But most often complicates miliaria rubra

43

T/F
Miliaria pustulosa is an infective complication of miliaria rubra

False
pustular but sterile

44

T/F
Miliaria rubra can cause hyperpyrexia if extensive

True
so can miliaria profunda

45

T/F
Compensatory hyperhidrosis is seen in Miliaria rubra

False
seen on face in miliaria profunda

46

T/F
Miliaria profunda is the most short lived form of miliaria

True
Regresses within hrs of ceasing exercise/cooling
– differentiates it form other causes of papules which are usually more persistent

47

T/F
sweat gland abscesses are cold abscesses

True
not fluctuant, dont point

48

T/F
sweat gland abscesses are sterile

False
usually due to staph
= Periporitis staphylogenes

49

T/F
sweat gland abscesses are associated with innune deficiency

False
not particularly

50

T/F
Pts w/ widespread idiopathic calcinosis cutis excrete calcium in sweat

True

51

What is ‘ureamic frost’ on the skin?

CRF pts with uraemia excrete urea in sweat causing a ‘ureamic frost’
NB ureamic pts often alos have reduced size of sweat glands on histo

52

T/F
Body odour is caused by bacterial degradation of apocrine sweat yielding ammonia and short chain fatty acids which cause smell

True

53

What is Bromhidrosis

Bromhidrosis is smelly sweat of any cause
Most often its ‘keratogenic’ due to maceration of the SC and bacterial colonization which produces the odou

54

T/F
Apocrine bromhidrosis can occur at any aporcrine site

False
Apocrine bromhidrosis only affects the axillary region – other apocrine sites don’t produce odour

55

T/F
Bromhidrosis is only caused by aprocrine sweat

False
can be apocrine or eccrine

56

T/F
Pts with apocrine bromhidrosis often have more and larger axillary apocrine glands than normal

True

57

T/F
Pts with apocrine bromhidrosis have altered local flora with reduced corynebacteria

False
altered local flora including increased corynebacteria

58

What are the aetiologies of eccrine bromhidrosis?

Keratogenic
Metabolic (syndromes)
Exogenous

59

Which sites are most commonly affected by keratogenic eccrine bromhidrosis?

Intertriginous sites
plantar region

60

Which syndrome gives a musty or mousy smell to the sweat?

PKU

61

What is the cause of fish odour syndrome?

Trimethylaminuria
deficiency of flavin-containing monooxygenase3 (FOM3)
so cannot fully metabolise trimethylamines, choline or lecithin (marine fish, kidney, eggs, liver)
get fishy odour when they eat these things due to excretion triemthylamines in the sweat

62

T/F
Methionine malabsorption syndrome results in boiled cabbage odour of the sweat

False
causes oasthouse syndrome - smells like drying hops
Boiled cabbage odour is caused by Methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency

63

Which metabolic syndrome causes a sweet smell of the sweat and urine?

Maple syrup urine disease

64

T/F
Pts with Trimethylaminuria get eccrine bromhidrosis with a sweaty feet smell

False
Sweaty feet odour typical of Isovaleric acidaemia
Trimethylaminuria causes fish odour syndrome

65

Which foods and drugs can cause eccrine bromhidrosis?

Foods – garlic, asparagus, curry
Drugs – penicillins, bromides
Chemicals - DMSO

66

what is management of bromhidrosis?

Ascertain if pathological or not
Encourage good hygiene
Avoid garlic, asparagus, curry
Acidic deodorant can help reduce bacteria
Ablation of axillary sweat glands can be offered if troublesome – laser, liposuction, ultrasound ablation, MiraDry, surgery

67

What is the classification of chromhidrosis?

Apocrine chromhidrosis
(true) Eccrine chromhidrosis
(eccrine) pseudochromhidrosis

68

What are physiopathological causes of eccrine chromhidrosis?

hyperbilirubinaemia (green)
alkaptonuria (black) (ochronosis)

69

Where is Apocrine chromhidrosis apparent? What causes it?

Face, axillae, areolae
Black/brown/green/blue/yellow
Due to excess secretion of lipofuscins from the sweat gland

70

What are investigations for chromhidrosis?

FBC, ELFT w/ split bilirubin
skin swabs for smear and microscopy
skin biopsy
urinary homogentisic acid
+/- spectrophotometry tests

71

What are the causes of pseudochromhidrosis?

Sweat is normal but gets coloured at the skin surface by a pigment e.g.
chromogenic bacteria (corynebacteria, piedraia, pseudomonas)
clothing dye
copper deposits

72

What is granulosis rubra nasi?

Rare AD disease
hyperhidrosis of nose tip onset in childhood followed later by erythema and sometimes papules and vesicles
No associations
No good Rx
often resolves at puberty

73

T/F
Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis is a cytotoxic side effect of chemo drugs on the eccrine glands

True

74

which drugs cause Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis?

Cytarabine for AML is most typical
– onset 1-2 weeks after chemo
Also MTX, cyclophosphamide, anthracyclines, 5FU, bleomycin, vinca alkaloids, imatinib
Can occur locally at sites of bleomycin injection
Has been triggered by paracetamol
Can be post G-CSF in HIV pts

75

What are non-drug causes of Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis?

infections
– strep, staph, gram neg bacilli, HIV

76

T/F
Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis can be papules, plaques, linear, targetoid or polymorphic erythematous lesions

True
can also be purpuric and pustular
Typically face and extremeties

77

T/F
pts with neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis are often febrile

True
due to infection or drug AE

78

What is the histopathology of neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis?

vacuolar degeneration of eccrine glands sparing hair follicle
neutrophilic infiltrate (may be lymphocytic if pt neutropenic)
eccrine squamous syringometaplasia
(squamous metaplasia of cuboidal epithelial cells of eccrine ducts)

79

T/F
Idiopathic palmoplantar hidradenitis is a rare condtion mainly seen in children esp after intense physicial activity

True

80

T/F
Idiopathic palmoplantar hidradenitis is characterised by sudden onset of multiple tender erythematous nodules on the palms most often and sometimes also on the soles

False
soles mainly, sometimes also palms

81

What is the histo of Idiopathic palmoplantar hidradenitis?

Neutrophilic infiltration of the eccrine glands and ducts
Infiltrate is nodular and may be abscesses

82

T/F
Idiopathic palmoplantar hidradenitis resolves in days to weeks with rest but may be recurrent in up to 50%

True

83

What are DDs of Idiopathic palmoplantar hidradenitis?

Pseudomonas hot foot syndrome
Erythema nodosum or other panniculitis
Perniosis
Vasculitis esp PAN

84

What is Fox-Fordyce disease?

AKA Apocrine miliaria
V itchy condition of unknown cause
Mainly women age 15-35
Dome-shaped skin-coloured perifollicular papules in axilla + periareolar and anogenitial skin
Can be seen on medial thighs, periumbilical area and sternum
Often hair is lost from affected sites

85

What are exacerbating factors in Fox-Fordyce disease?

Worse by heat, excercise, emotional stress
Often better in pregnancy or with OCP

86

What is histo Fox-Fordyce disease?

keratin plug in the follicular infundibulum obstructing the apocrine duct
rupture of duct and inflammation
spongiosis and Perifollicular and periadnexal infiltrate of lymphocytes

87

What is treatment ladder of Fox-Fordyce disease?

TCS 1st line (caution due to flexural sites)
ILCS 1st line (caution risk of atrophy)
Topical calcineurin inhibitors
Topical tretinoin can help pruritus
Clindamycin lotion BD can reduce symptoms
OCP helps some women
Isotretinoin has been used
Phototherapy
Electrocautery
Excision of periareolar skin