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Flashcards in Nervous system Dan Deck (89):
1

How is Post herpetic neuralgia defined?

Pain lasting more than 4 weeks after zoster vesicles healed

2

T/F
older pts are more at risk of Post herpetic neuralgia

True
almost 50% of over 60s
can be disabling - tends to be more severe and longer lasting in older age
worth immunising older people to reduce zoster risk
vaccine reduces the incidence of both zoster reactivation and post herpetic neuralgia

3

T/F
Pain of Post herpetic neuralgia is worsended with stress

True
has an autonomic component – worse when stressed, eases with relaxation

4

T/F
compression can relieve pain of Post herpetic neuralgia even when allodynia present

True

5

T/F
Post herpetic neuralgia can cause anaesthesia dolorosa

True
sensory loss in area of pain

6

Treatment ladder for Post herpetic neuralgia

Simple analgesia can be helpful esp if mild – paracetamol, NSAIDs
Firm compression
Relaxation techniques
Topical capsaicin 0.025-0.077% applied 3-4x per day is effective but can cause burning pain and hyperalgesia
Topical 5% lignocaine patches
Amitryptaline (TCA) 70mg daily – effective in 60% - cholinergic AEs; sometimes other TCAs e.g. nortryptaline
Gabapentin, Pregabalin (GABA analogues) – at least as effective as the antidepressants above but fewer side effects
Opioids – oxycodone, tramadol – try after the above
Clonidine (central α2 agonist)
lamotrigine (antiepileptic)
Baclofen (GABA analogue, antispasmodic)
Intrathecal methylprednisolone weekly
TENS
Spinal cord stimulators
Refer to pain clinic or neurologist

7

T/F
treating zoster with antivirals up to 10 days after onset can reduce risk of and severity of Post herpetic neuralgia

False
Can reduce pain/severity and duration but not incidence of PHN
but works best in first 72 hrs

8

T/F
TCS during zoster reduce risk of and severity of Post herpetic neuralgia

False
no effect

9

T/F
acupuncture is proven to help Post herpetic neuralgia

False

10

T/F
Surgical techniques are last line but effective treatment for Post herpetic neuralgia

False
high morbidity
not recommended

11

What are causes of neuropathic ulcers?

T2 Diabetes – vast majority
Peripheral neuropathy
Leprosy
Alcoholism
Vitamin deficiency
Tabes dorsalis (tertiary neurosyphylis)
Spinal dysraphism
Spinal cord injury
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies

12

T/F
In neuropathic ulcers cellulitis or palpable bone using a wound probe indicate high risk of osteomyelitis and the foot should be X-rayed

True
can show osteomyelitis, foreign body, gas in tissues or bony abnormality

13

How do you care for neuropathic feet to prevent ulcers?

Inspect feet daily and keep clean and dry
Have regular podiatry for callous removal etc
Should be taught correct toe nail cutting
Need shoes with round or square toe box and low heel to prevent excess pressure on forefoot
Urea products may help callus
Stop smoking, control HTN and diabetes, may need aspirin

14

What is total contact casting (TCC)?

a way to make a plaster of paris boot that completely encompasses the foot and lower leg and redistributes pressure to completely off-load the usual pressure points
boots applied weekly initially then every 3 weeks

15

How do you manage established neuropathic ulcers?

Surgical debridement
Dressing with hydrogel or hydrocolloid dressings (hold a lot of water)
Offload pressure eg contact casting or Aircast walkers boot

16

T/F
neuropathic ulcers develop in areas of injury or highest pressure

True

17

T/F
50% of diabetics get a foot ulcer

False
15-25%

18

T/F
50% of pts with diabetes don’t know they have it

True

19

T/F
treated diabetic ulcers have a 50-70% recurrence risk in the next 5 years

True

20

T/F
Diabetic foot ulcers are often preventable with early recognition and intervention

True

21

T/F
diabetic foot ulcers are always neuropathic

False
May be;
Neuropathic
Ischaemic
Combined (neuroischaemic)

22

T/F
Ischaemic diabetic ulcers have the best prognosis

False
Purely neuropathic ulcers have better prognosis than other 2 types

23

T/F
Most diabetic ulcers will eventually heal with good care

False
Only 1 third of diabetic foot ulcers will heal even with best care and those that do are slow, often more than 2 months

24

T/F
diabetics with foot ulcers have a higher mortality than those without

True
50% higher

25

T/F
T/F
50% of lower limb amputations follow a diabetic foot ulcer

False
85%

26

T/F
Diabetics have a 15-45x increased risk of lower limb amputation

True

27

How common is a contralateral amputation after a first lower limb amputation for diabetic complications?

50% risk of contralateral lower limb amputation within 5 years of first side amputation

28

What are the pathological factors in diabetic foot ulcers?

Neuropathy – motor, sensory and autonomic. Due to;
• Nitric oxide inhibition – increased ROS/superoxides
• Maillard reaction – results in advanced glycation end products
Vascular disease
- Macrovascular disease
- Microvascular disease
- Thickening and loss of elasticity of capillary walls prevents vasodilatation
Inflammation & susceptibility to infection

29

What deformities can ocur in neuropathic feet?

‘cocked-up’ toe, claw toes and hammer toes - due to motor neuropathy
displaced plantar fat pads due to toe deformitys
halux valgus (bunions), hallux rigidus or equinus deformity of the ankle
Charcot or ‘rocker bottom’ foot and charcot ankle

30

What makes diabetic feet prone to infection and prolonged inflammation?

Loss of barrier when an ulcer forms allows entry of microbes
Bacteria grow in colonies surrounded by a biofilm
Diabetics have reduced chemotaxis and function
Reduced bactericidal and phagocytic capacity in the presence of hyperglycaemia
Sustained inflammation and delayed re-epithelialization contribute to slow healing

31

T/F
In diabetic foot disease callus indicates increased local pressure and portends an ulcer

True
Must examine both feet carefully with shoes and socks off
for callus neuropathy, pulses and deformity as well as ulcers

32

What are the International working group on the diabetic foot (IWGDF) risk categories and management recommendationd for diabetic foot disease?

Risk of ulcer and amputation goes up with category except 1 and 2 have zero risk of amputation
Should educate patient at all stages
0 - no sensory neuropathy
- Ulcer 2-6%, Amputation 0%
- revew annually
1 - Sensory neuropathy
- Ulcer 6-9%, Amputation 0%
- podiatry every 6 months + OTC shoes/ insoles
2 - Sensory neuropathy w/ deformity or PVD
- Ulcer 8-17%, Amputation 1-3%
- podiatry every 2-3 months + therapeutic shoes/ insoles
3 - Previous ulcer or amputation
- Ulcer 26-78%, Amputation 10-18%
- podiatry every 1-2 months + therapeutic shoes/ insoles

33

What are the 3 trongest risk factors fo diabetic ulcers?

Previous ulcer or amputation
Arterial disease
Neuropathy
presence of any 2 of these increases the risk by 32%

34

What are the most important things on examination of diabetic foot?

Ulcer
Callus or blister
Deformity
Pulses (DP or PT)
Neuropathy

35

How do you assess for neuropathy?

use sterile 10g monofilament on 10 areas – 4 insensate areas = positive test
128Hz tuning fork for vibratory perception
Test JPS in usual way

36

T/F
20-40% of pts develop diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy within 10 years of onset of diabetes

False
40-50%
occurs sooner if glycaemic control is poor

37

T/F
presence of foot pulses reliably inicates absence of ischaemic foot disease

False
Palpable pulse indicates pressure of at least 80mmHg but is not a very sensitive indicator of the presence of PVD – 50% sensitivity and 73% specificity
Diabetics get calcium deposition in vessel wall (medial calcinosis) – pulse can be present but still poor perfusion
An ischaemic foot can appear pink and warm due to presence of shunts
Arterial Doppler (colour-coded duplex USS) and ABPI better to rule our arterial disease
Skin perfusion pressure can be measured by a vascular lab and may be helpful to diagnose critical ischaemia in diabetics

38

What a normal ABPI result?

systolic in ankle/foot divided by systolic in arm
Normal is 0.8 to 1.4
Toe-brachial pressure index is a better screening test than ABPI. Should be >55mmHg

39

T/F
Diabetes is most common cause of lower limb sensory neuropathy resulting in Charcot foot

True

40

What is Charcot foot?

A foot which is red, swollen and deformed often with dropped arch causing ‘rocker bottom’ appearance
Due to repetitive trauma to insensitive bones and joints of foot causing bones and joints to become dislocated
As process continues with partial healing fixed deformities develop in any or all parts of the foot and ankle causing the typical charcot appearance
Takes 6-9 months

41

What is the most likely diagnosis of a swollen, warm diabetic foot?

Osteomyelitis is the most likely diagnosis of swollen, warm foot with an ulcer;
Charcot foot most likely if swollen, warm diabetic foot and no ulcer

42

Which sites of diabetic ulcers heal best?

Forefoot wounds are more likely to heal than proximal ulcers
Heel ulcers are very poor to heal and have high amputation rates

43

T/F
Diagnostic overshadowing is a risk in an ulcerated diabetic foot

True
cna be skin cnacer including acral (amelanotic) melanoma
or other causes eg PG

44

T/F
classification/staging of ulcerated feet help to track progress

True
E.g.
Meggit-Wagner classification – looks at wound depth and infection
IWGDF system classifies based on;
Perfusion, Extent (size), Depth, Infection & Sensation (PEDIS)

45

What parameters are assessed in the IWGDF system for diabetic foot ulcers?

PEDIS
Perfusion
Extent (size)
Depth
Infection
Sensation

46

What is the management of pt with diabetic foot/ulcer?

Hx including diabetic control, pain assessment and symptoms of vascular disease
Exam including;
- Check pulses
- Neuropathy test
- Callus and infection assessment
- Ulcer grading if ulcer present
- Assessment of skin around ulcer
- Assessment of bony abnormalities; bunions, hammer, claw, hallux rigidus, charcot
- Assess gait and footwear
Toe-brachial pressure index and/or arterial duplex
Xray and/or MRI if foot ulcer present or suspect charcot foot or osteomyelitis or both
FBC, ELFT, HbA1c, ESR & CRP (to look for comorbidities which may slow healing; anaemia, renal failure etc, albumin as marker of nutrition; inflammatory markers raised in osteomyelitis or other chronic disease; ESR >40 or CRP >20).

47

T/F
>50% of diabetic foot ulcers develop infection

True

48

T/F
every increase in HbA1c of 1% (0.01) over 0.07 results in 25% increased risk of peripheral artery disease

True

49

What are the definitions of;
Contamination
Colonization
Critical Colonization
Infection

Contamination – non replicating bacteria on wound surface (all wounds)
Colonization – replicating bacteria without a tissue response
Critical colonization – replicating bacteria in the superficial wound base with tissue damage
Infection – significant inflammation and tissue damage from replicating bacteria

50

T/F
swabs should be taken before a wound is cleaned and debrided

False
take afterwards

51

T/F
colonized to infected ulcers need antibiotics

False
nothing if colonized
topical antiseptics if critical colonization present E.g. povidone-iodine, honey, silver dressings, chlorhex
Antibiotics only if frnak infection - Start broad spectrum ABs first. At least 2 weeks for mild infection and 4 for severe. IV first if severe

52

What are the types of debridement of ucler?

sharp (surgical) - most often
autolytic
enzymatic
mechanical
biologic

53

T/F
Total contact cast is gold standard for redistributing plantar pressure in diabetic foot ulcers

True
redistribute pressure from forefoot to lower leg and heel
After healing, pts need therapeutic shoes which redistribute pressure to prevent recurrences

54

What are contraindications to Total contact casting?

heel ulcers (mainly need therapeutic shoes)
deep infection
peripheral artery disease present

55

T/F
some compression can be used in mild arterial disease

True
Uncontrolled oedema delays healing of foot ulcers

56

T/F
Exudative wounds need absorbant dressings

True
foams, calcium alginates, hydrofibre

57

What kind of dressings good for dry wounds?

dressings which donate water – hydrogels
or which preserve water – acrylics, hydrocolloids, films
beware as all cal be occlusive and increase infection risk

58

T/F
If ulcer is not 50% healed by wk 4 with optimal care then unlikely to heal by wk 12

True

59

What are the advanced treatment options for diabetic ulcers which are not responding?

Growth factors e.g. recombinant human PDGF
Negative pressure wound therapy (vac dressing)
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Tissue-engineered skin equivalents - allograft, alloderm..
Autologous split skin graft
Surgical excision/ reconstruction
Surgical correction of foot deformities - rarly performed esp if active ulcer
amputation is last line

60

T/F
Negative presure VAC dressings are good for chronic non-healing wounds

False
Good for post surgical management of acute diabetic wounds
Not good for chronic non-healing wounds

61

How is Hyperbaric oxygen therapy delivered?

100% O2 delivered at >1 atm pressure
Sessions in a chamber last 45-120 mins
performed 1-2 times daily
4-5x per week up to 20-30 sessions in total

62

T/F
2/3 of AIDS pts have EMG evidence of peripheral nerve disease

True

63

T/F
80% of HIV +ve pts get xerosis possibly related to neuropathy of innervations of sweat glands

False
20%

64

What is the classification of peripheral nerve injury?

Neuropraxia
- Injury causing myelin damage but axon still intact
- Loss of function but usually resolves in weeks-months
Axonotmesis
- Disruption of the axon but with intact perineurium
- Often from crush injury
- Causes sensory, motor and autonomic neuropathy
- Can recover over weeks-years
Neurotmesis
- Most severe form of nerve injury
- No possibility of full recovery

65

T/F
Carpal tunnel syndrome can cause skin changes

True
In 20%
erythema of fingers, bullae, small foci of necrosis, nail dystrophy

66

What is ‘la main succulente’

French term for the appearance of the hands in Syringomyelia
skin over knuckles can become thick, swollen, cyanotic and keratotic due to chronic painless injury
Due to dissociated sensory loss with early involvement of the pain and temp fibres as they cross the cord in the anterior midline

67

T/F
tumours are the most common cause of syringomyelia

False
Type 1 Chiari malformation most common
(cerebellar tonsils extend below foramen magnum)

68

What is dysraphism?
How are they classified?

Raphe = a line of junction between 2 symmetrical embryological structures
Dysraphism is failure of complete fusion of these 2 structures
Occurs between week 2-6 of embryonic life when spinal cord is forming
classified as open or closed'
Open = Exposed to the environment e.g. spina bifida, myelomeningocele
Closed = Covered by intact skin

69

What skin features are associated with spinal dysraphism?

Pits or Dimples – lumbosacral dimples high risk whereas coccygeal dimple usually fine
Sinus ostia - opening of congenital dermal sinuses; pigment changes, erythema, skin tags, subcut masses
Giant congenital melanocytic naevus
Faun tail hypertrichosis
Lipoma
Vascular malformations or tumours – PWS, haemangioma
Pigmented macule
50% of cases have associated derm feature
get USS if concerned in child under 4 months or MRI if older

70

What are the features of Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies?

5 types; 1-5
Genetic diseases; AD or AR
Present at birth except type 1 which presents later in childhood
Different combinations of loss of sensory, motor and autonomic motor neurones
Some get anhidrosis or excess sweating or pseudoainhum of fingers and spontaneous amputations
Often die in childhood some can survive w/ supportive cares

71

T/F
sympathetic nerve injury can prevent normal greying of hair

True

72

What are the types of Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) (Sudek's atrophy)?

CRPS type 1 (reflex sympathetic dystrophy) – no demonstrable nerve lesion, more common type
CRPS type 2 (causalgia) – nerve lesion on electrophysiology
NB;
Sudeck’s atrophy strictly refers to trophic changes in bone, muscle and skin

73

T/F
Complex regional pain syndrome is more common in women?

True
F:M = 4:1
age 30-50

74

T/F
Fractures are the most common cause of Complex regional pain syndrome

True - cause 50%

75

What skin condiitons can cause Complex regional pain syndrome?

Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau
Psoriatic arthritis
Chronic venous ulcers
Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma
Herpes zoster
Parvovirus B19
Minor surgery (nail or skin biopsy)
SLE
Vasculitis
Idiopathic panniculitis (Weber-Christian)

76

How is the diagnosis of Complex regional pain syndrome made?

Diagnosis requires all 4 of;
1. Syndrome that develops after a noxious event
2. Spontaneous pain or allodynia/hyperalgesia not limited to the territory of a single nerve and disproportionate to the initiating stimulus
3. Past or present oedema, abnormal skin blood flow or sudomotor activity
4. Absence of other conditions that could account for pain or dysfunction

77

T/F
Complex regional pain syndrome made more commonly involves the legs than the arms

False
arms twice as common as legs

78

What are the derm features of Complex regional pain syndrome?

Skin is shiny, atrophic and dry (‘trophic’ change due to altered innervations)
Oedema
Sudomotor changes (hyper then hypo hidrosis)
Erythema and warmth
Hyper or hypo trichosis
Hyper or hypo hidrosis
Bullae
Factitious ulcers
Beau’s lines, nail notching, leukonychia, onychodystrophy

79

T/F
capsaicin and EMLA creams are helpful in Complex regional pain syndrome?

False
no help
need systemic neuropathic pain agents and other drugs from pain specialist as well as procedural interventions and psychotherapy

80

What is Cutaneous dysaesthesia?

chronic skin symptoms without any objective findings

81

What is burning scalp syndrome? How is it treated?

Pts often complain of itching or burning or stinging pain of the scalp
Triggered or exacerbated by psychological or physical stress
Often middle aged or elderly women
Often anxiety, depression or stressful life event
No objective findings - need full work up, scrapings, biopsies, APT etc
Rx;
Gabapentin/pregabalin
Amitryptaline
Low dose SSRI – better response in pain than itch types

82

What is burning feet syndrome? How is it treated?

Idiopathic or assoc w/ diabetic neuropathy
Can be AD trait
Can be found in those w/ minor foot deformities like high arches
Loss of small fibre sensory nerves
Mainly cholinergic defects – unlike other autonomic neuropathies which are adrenergic
Burning sensation of feet exacerbated by heat or by cold
May have dry skin, eyes or mouth
May have vasomotor symptoms of peripheral coldness, burning or flushing, HTN or impotence
Rx;
1st line
- Dopaminergic agents – levadopa, cabergoline
- Pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine (non-ergot dopaminergic agents) have less risk of heart or lung fibrosis
2nd line agents
- Gabapentin
- Opioids – endone, codeine, methadone
- BZs – diazepam, clonazepam
o Iron supplements only if ferritin low (

83

What is burning mouth syndrome? How is it treated?

Burning mucosal pain with no lesions
Usually bilateral on anterior 2/3 tongue, palate and lower lip
buccal mucosa and floor of mouth are rarely involved
7x more common women, esp mid age or older
3 types;
Type 1) 35% - fine on waking, symptoms increase over day
Type 2) 55% - constant burning day and night
Type 3) 10% - interspersed affected days and days of remission with no cause found
Precipitating factors – deficiency of iron, zinc, folate, Vit B12; T2DM; hypothyroid; menopause, drugs
Assessment – look carefully for lesions esp SCC, trauma from ill-fitting dentures, candida, LP, xerostomia, contact dermatitis from dental work, glossitis, geographic tongue
Consider sjogrens
Must review ALL meds – stop any that can cause xerostomia (anticholinergics etc)
Screen for depression/anxiety
Rx;
Treat cause if found
Consider referral to dentist, psych etc if any indication
Worth a course of antifungals even if culture negative – nilstat
If primary (no cause found) try; amitryptaline, doxepin, benzos, gabapentin
Topical capsaicin
Topical local anaesthetic
Topical tetracycline
Topical steroid + CBT and α-lipoic acid

84

What is 'Tic douloureux'

Trigeminal neuralgia
Recurrent paroxysms of sharp pain lasting secs-mins in a territory of one of the sensory divisions of CN.V
Aetiology unknown
No skin changes, sensory and motor nerve function is normal

85

T/F
Trigeminal neuralgia is more common on the right side than the left

True
rarely bilateral

86

T/F
Trigeminal neuralgia attacks can be triggered by touching face, eating, talking, brushing teeth

True

87

T/F
Up to 18% of Trigeminal neuralgia pts have MS but without demonstrable demyelination of trigeminal nerve

True

88

How is Trigeminal neuralgia managed?

Fullexam of skin and asessment of sensory component of nerve and local motor nerves
MRI indicated if suspicious of another cause of symptoms
Exclusion of reversible cause needed to make diagnosis
Carbamazepine most effective oral agent – helps in 70-90%
Phenytoin – IV for acute crisis
Baclofen
Gabapentin
BotoxA
Surgery if refractory – microvascular decompression, stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma radiation) has had some good results

89

What is an acute trigeminal neuralgia crisis?

episode of acute severe persistent pain