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Flashcards in Swine Gastrointestinal Diseases Deck (22)
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1

What are the 7 Nursing/Suckling and Early Post-Weaning GI diseases in Swine?
What age ranges are most effected by each of them?

Clostridium perfringens (A and C): 1-7 day old pigs

Clostridium difficile: 1-2 day old pigs

Enteric colibacillosis (E. Coli): 1-14 day old piglets and first 2 weeks post weaning

Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE): All ages

Coccidia (Isospora suis and Eimeria spp.): 5-15 day old piglets

Rotavirus: All ages

Hypoglycemia

2

What clinical signs are associated with Clostridium perfringens Types A and C in pigs? How do the two types differ from one another?

Pigs will develop sudden onset of watery yellow and often bloody diarrhea. Spread often occurs after the introduction of new pigs.

3

What pathologic lesions are associated with Clostridium perfringens?

Dark red small intestines with hemorrhage

4

How can Clostridium perfringens be prevented?

Treatment is usually ineffective in pigs with signs. Use of both Salinomycin and Bacitracin has been described. 

Antitoxin or Antibiotics given to piglets at birth can be protective.

Vaccination of sows prior to birth may provide some immunity via colostrum. 

5

Describe Clostridium difficile in pigs

A GI disease in pigs that causes variable morbidity but lower mortality. It causes a creamy/pasty yellow to watery diarrhea. Mesocolonic edema is also present. Microscopically, multifocal suppurative and erosive colitis is seen. Can confirm the presence of C. difficile enterotoxin with ELISA on fresh feces.

6

What clinical sign is pathognomonic with Enteric Colibacillosis in pigs when associated with diarrhea 

Tail Necrosis

7

What environmental factors have been linked to porcine Enteric Colibaciollosis?

A dirty or damp environment associated with poor management practices and low temperatures. 

8

Describe the diarrhea associated with Enteric Colibacillosis in swine

White to yellowish watery diarrhea with gas and fetid odor leading to rapid dehydration

9

How is Enteric Colibacillosis treated in pigs?

Fluid Therapy

Antimicrobials (oral or parenteral) - Ampicillin, gentamycin, neomycin, furizodilone, potentiated sulphur drugs

10

What ages are most commonly associated with Rotaviral disease in pigs?

While all ages can be affected, the pigs are most often 1-5 weeks old

11

Describe diarrhea associated with Rotavirus in pigs

Often gray, pasty feces with poorly digested feed

12

What morbidity/mortality is associated with Rotavirus in pigs?

Morbidity - Low

Mortality - Variable

13

How is Rotavirus treated in pigs?

No specific treatment - just provide supportive care

14

What is the causative agent for Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)?

Coronavirus

15

What are the two forms of Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) and how do they differ?

Endemic (Enzootic) - Low morbidity/mortality

Epizootic - Near 100% morbidity/mortality in pigs less than 10 days of age

16

What clinical signs are associated with Transmissible Gastroenteritis?

Vomiting - often the initial sign, but not always present

Diarrhea with curds of undigested milk

17

How is Transmissible Gastroenteritis treated and prevented in pigs?

Treatment - no specific treatment is available - oral hydration with electrolytes is provided. 

Prevention - Biosecurity is Crucial.

18

What are the two causative agents for Porcine Intestinal Coccidiosis and which is more common?

Isospora suis - most common

Eimeria spp.

19

Describe diarrhea associated with Intestinal coccidiosis

Fetid, ellow to white diarrhea that may contain "sheep pellet feces"

20

How is Intestinal Coccidiosis diagnosed in pigs?

Demonstration of oocysts in feces or demonstration of parasites in intestinal lesions

21

What is the treatment of choice for Intestinal Coccidiosis in piglets?

Sulfamethazine or Ponazuril

22

How is Intestinal Coccidiosis prevented in piglets?

Fecal removal. Disinfection of the farrowing facility is difficult due to hardy spores.