What are the 7 Nursing/Suckling and Early Post-Weaning GI diseases in Swine?
What age ranges are most effected by each of them?
Clostridium perfringens (A and C): 1-7 day old pigs
Clostridium difficile: 1-2 day old pigs
Enteric colibacillosis (E. Coli): 1-14 day old piglets and first 2 weeks post weaning
Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE): All ages
Coccidia (Isospora suis and Eimeria spp.): 5-15 day old piglets
Rotavirus: All ages
What clinical signs are associated with Clostridium perfringens Types A and C in pigs? How do the two types differ from one another?
Pigs will develop sudden onset of watery yellow and often bloody diarrhea. Spread often occurs after the introduction of new pigs.
What pathologic lesions are associated with Clostridium perfringens?
Dark red small intestines with hemorrhage
How can Clostridium perfringens be prevented?
Treatment is usually ineffective in pigs with signs. Use of both Salinomycin and Bacitracin has been described.
Antitoxin or Antibiotics given to piglets at birth can be protective.
Vaccination of sows prior to birth may provide some immunity via colostrum.
Describe Clostridium difficile in pigs
A GI disease in pigs that causes variable morbidity but lower mortality. It causes a creamy/pasty yellow to watery diarrhea. Mesocolonic edema is also present. Microscopically, multifocal suppurative and erosive colitis is seen. Can confirm the presence of C. difficile enterotoxin with ELISA on fresh feces.
What clinical sign is pathognomonic with Enteric Colibacillosis in pigs when associated with diarrhea
What environmental factors have been linked to porcine Enteric Colibaciollosis?
A dirty or damp environment associated with poor management practices and low temperatures.
Describe the diarrhea associated with Enteric Colibacillosis in swine
White to yellowish watery diarrhea with gas and fetid odor leading to rapid dehydration
How is Enteric Colibacillosis treated in pigs?
Antimicrobials (oral or parenteral) - Ampicillin, gentamycin, neomycin, furizodilone, potentiated sulphur drugs
What ages are most commonly associated with Rotaviral disease in pigs?
While all ages can be affected, the pigs are most often 1-5 weeks old
Describe diarrhea associated with Rotavirus in pigs
Often gray, pasty feces with poorly digested feed
What morbidity/mortality is associated with Rotavirus in pigs?
Morbidity - Low
Mortality - Variable
How is Rotavirus treated in pigs?
No specific treatment - just provide supportive care
What is the causative agent for Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)?
What are the two forms of Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) and how do they differ?
Endemic (Enzootic) - Low morbidity/mortality
Epizootic - Near 100% morbidity/mortality in pigs less than 10 days of age
What clinical signs are associated with Transmissible Gastroenteritis?
Vomiting - often the initial sign, but not always present
Diarrhea with curds of undigested milk
How is Transmissible Gastroenteritis treated and prevented in pigs?
Treatment - no specific treatment is available - oral hydration with electrolytes is provided.
Prevention - Biosecurity is Crucial.
What are the two causative agents for Porcine Intestinal Coccidiosis and which is more common?
Isospora suis - most common
Describe diarrhea associated with Intestinal coccidiosis
Fetid, ellow to white diarrhea that may contain "sheep pellet feces"
How is Intestinal Coccidiosis diagnosed in pigs?
Demonstration of oocysts in feces or demonstration of parasites in intestinal lesions
What is the treatment of choice for Intestinal Coccidiosis in piglets?
Sulfamethazine or Ponazuril
How is Intestinal Coccidiosis prevented in piglets?
Fecal removal. Disinfection of the farrowing facility is difficult due to hardy spores.