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Flashcards in Syllabus: Christianity Deck (19):

The contribution to Christianity of ONE significant person OR school of thought, other than Jesus, drawn from : (Pope John XXIII)

Significant legacy; Vatican II (1962-65) revolutionised view of modern world. Pope said “Open the windows”

New openness to ecumenism;work with other religions and other Christians

“Let us place values on those things that unite us and lay aside that which separates us.”

Previously; “one true church” but now encouraged to share prayer, social actions with other Christians

Called protestants ‘separated brethren’ instead of heretics; “Unity among Christians.”

Vatican II aim for renewal of Church. “Unity in the Church, unity with Christians separated from the Church, and unity with all of humankind.”

If council wasn’t called;church would be cut off from modern world, outdated and irrelevant

Modernised role of priests, nuns etc→ more focused on working for social justice

Renewal of liturgy; now study bible, mass translated to local languages, not said with back to people


ENCYCLICAL: Mater et Magistra (Mother and Teacher)

Social justice

Need for wealthy nations to support developing one

"Man’s aim must be to achieve in social justice a national and international judicial order.”

"It will not be possible to preserve a lasting peace so long as glaring economic and social imbalances persist.”


ENCYCLICAL: Pacem en Terris (Peace on Earth)

Prophetic call to peace, in world on the brink of nuclear war

Addressed not just to Catholics, but to whole world

“The stockpiles of armaments which have been built up in various countries must be reduced all round and simultaneously by the parties concerned. Nuclear weapons must be banned"


The effect of that person OR school of thought on Christianity

Still resistance about renewal; some broke away, decline in nuns blamed on Vatican II
Many organisations took up idea of working for peace and justice;
Some organisations (E.g. Catholic Mission) shifted focus from converting non-catholics to helping poor and third-world developments
Unreasonably harsh church laws dropped; greater emphasis on pastoral care and social justice
1965; Excommunications of Great Schism (1054) in Catholic and Orthodox Churches stop
Ecumenism work; contributed to world peace (end many conflicts between Catholics and Protestants)


The effect of that person OR school of thought on Christianity:


- Mass said in latin (wasn’t understood)
- Celebrated exactly the same throughout the world
- Laity passive observers in liturgy

- Mass translated
- Laity given hymns, prayers to help participation
- “Full conscious and active participation of the people in the liturgy”


The effect of that person OR school of thought on Christianity:


- Church seen as hierarchy (popes, cardinals bishops, priests)
- Religious brothers/sisters had active roles; laity were passive supporters

- Church recognised laity and ordained together, all as people of God
- “The baptised,are consecrated as a spiritual house and a holy priesthood.”


The effect of that person OR school of thought on Christianity:


- Official version of Bible was Latin
- Laity not allowed to read Bible

- Laity encouraged to study Bible, modern analysis and translation allowed
- “Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ.”


The effect of that person OR school of thought on Christianity:


- Church considered perfect; opposed to corruption of secular world

- Recognised positives of modern society
- Church “stands in solidarity with humankind.”
- Church contributing to society; issues of human dignity, family, war, peace



Pope John XXIII


BIOETHICS definition

Study of ethical/moral implications of new discoveries and biomedical advances


ONE of the following areas of ethical teaching in Christianity: Bioethics


Foundations in Bible, Ten Commandments. Beatitudes, Commandment of Love

Guided by Bible; live according to God’s word

To live in modern world; have to address problems of life from everyday issues


ONE of the following areas of ethical teaching in Christianity: Bioethics


Ten commandments: religious and ethical guidelines
- “Thou shalt not kill.” “Thou shalt not commit adultery.” (EXODUS 20:1-17)

Beatitudes: Model for Christian living; life directed to holiness
- "Blessed are the merciful for they shall receive mercy.” (MATTHEW 5:3-8)

Jesus’ commandment of love; Love God and your neighbour
- "You shall love the Lord your God with your whole heart, with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the first and great Commandment. And the second is like it: you shall love your neighbour as yourself." (Matthew 22: 36-40)

Guidelines on how to live ethical life; Christians expected to place value on ethical teachings of tradition; to determine response to number of issues


ONE of the following areas of ethical teaching in Christianity: Bioethics


Killing or ending of a foetus by artificial means during pregnancy

Legal in some states but poses problem for Christians
Catholic; Abortion is wrong as it goes against 6th commandment; “Thou shalt not kill.”

All life is sacred and must be treated with dignity as humans are made in God's image (Gen 1: 26)
- Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, (Gen 1:26)

Humanae Vitae 13→ “Human life is sacred.” → Goes against teachings of the Church

Catholic ethics based on natural law→ God set up world and it is wrong for humans to interfere with what is meant to be; abortions are wrong as they prevent new life

Anglican (protestant variant) → permits abortion in cases of rape, deformity of the foetus and where they may be a mental or physical risk to the mother (not advocated but accepted)

Orthodox→ equal to murder but allowed if mother’s life is in danger or rape (perceived as not morally righteous decision and person making decision must repent)


ONE of the following areas of ethical teaching in Christianity: Bioethics


Assisted suicide→ taking of life is of concern. Usually when there is little hope for cure in suffering a terminal illness, or the person is experiencing great pain

It's considered God's prerogative to take life and not the role of any humans, including Doctors or relatives

Most churches support increased funding for palliative care as an alternative to euthanasia

“See now that I myself am he!There is no god besides me. I put to death and I bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal,and no one can deliver out of my hand.” (Deut 32:39)


ONE significant practice within Christianity drawn from:


Significant practice; person is welcomed into Christian community

2 essential elements required: Water (immersion or pouring) and trinitarian formula recited over person

Follows Jesus;s instructions to disciples: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Matt 28:19)

Can occur at any time in a person’s life; but only once

Infants baptism:
- Parents bring godparents and infant to church (usually are active members of Christian community and want the same for their child)
- In ceremony, parents and godparents speak for child; take on responsibility of educating in practice of faith

Adult baptism occurs at the request of the person themselves


ONE significant practice within Christianity drawn from:


Preparatory Rituals
- Instructions from priest on meaning of baptism and parental responsibilities in bringing up child in practice of faith
- Parents choose godparents to assist in child’s spiritual growth
- Child is presented to gathered congregation prior to baptism
- Ceremony begins with hymn, parents reminded of responsibility to educate and nurture child in faith

Build up phase Rituals
- Scripture readings, homily
- In name of Christ the saviour, Celebrant anoints child on breast with oil of Catechumens, asking God to strengthen Child.

Transforming Rituals
- Celebrant blesses the water to be used in ceremony and prays through Holy Spirit power, the baby will be cleansed from sin to new birth in innocence
- Celebrant asks parents and godparents if they are ready to accept responsibilities of bringing up child in practice of faith and keeping light of faith alive in the child
- Celebrant invites family to baptismal font. Baptise child saying “I baptise you in the name of the Father” while pouring water on child's head, “and of the Son,” while pouring water over head second time, “and of the Holy Spirit.” pouring over head a third time

Wind down Rituals
- Roman Catholic/Anglican→ Celebrant anoints baby on crown of head with Oil of Chrism
- Roman Catholic/Anglican→ Celebrant invites family to light the child’s baptismal candle
- Catholic→ celebrants touches ears/mouth with thumb (receive word of Gd and mouth to proclaim faith)

Exit Rituals
- Roman Catholic→ family processes to alter, congregation prays Lord’s prayer. Bless mother then father
- Christian baptismal ceremonies conclude with final blessing over whole congregation and singing of a hymn
- Family celebration that follows isn’t part of sacrament of Baptism→ social ritual and is appropriate to celebrate


ONE significant practice within Christianity drawn from:


Water→ cleansing from sin. Necessary for life and symbolises life-giving grace that sustains those baptised

Oil of Chrism→ Joy and thanksgiving linked to new life in Christ

White garment→ Outward sign of Christian dignity and symbol of new life in Christ

Baptismal candle → sign of receiving light of Christ

Oil of Catechumens is smeared on child’s breast as a sign of healing and strengthening


ONE significant practice within Christianity drawn from:


Baptism connects a person to Jesus the saviour
While humans are still inclined to sin; Baptism gives strength and grace to participate in life of God

In adult, it removes original sin as well as any personal sins committed during life

“The Lord himself affirms that baptism is necessary for salvation.” CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH

Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, Methodist, Uniting and Presbyterian Church teaches that faith and baptism is necessary for salvation

However denominations such as Lutherans, Baptist, Pentecostals, Seventh Day Adventists and Anabaptists think baptism isn’t necessary for salvation and don't permit infant baptism (except Lutheran)

Through baptism, Christians become God’s property; claimed as God’s own

Baptism welcomes person into Christian community and allows to receive other sacraments and participate fully in the spiritual life of the Church

Death to sin and rebirth in Christ occurs when water is poured over the head when reciting the baptismal formula. Reborn as sons and daughter of Christ, believers are given responsibility of professing the faith and actively participating in the life of their worshipping community

Called to participate in the mission of the Church by living the values taught in the Beatitudes.

Only rite of initiation all denominations have in common. Christians are all united as baptism is rooted in a set of common beliefs about sin, redemption, salvation and belonging to the family of God.


Demonstrate how the chosen practice expresses the beliefs of Christianity (Baptism)

Revelation: Developing relationship with God, opens up relationship and community of God→ Become more knowledgeable and become part of revelation in revealing God to others.

Salvation: Baptism purifies and takes away original sin→ gives place in heaven

Nature of God and the Trinity: Baptised in the trinity formula

Divinity and Humanity of Jesus Christ: Exposes adherents to divinity and humanity of Jesus

The Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ: Die to our old self and born again in new life→ take on a new direction