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Flashcards in Syllabus: Islam Deck (23):
1

The contribution to Islam of one significant person OR school of thought, other than Muhammad and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, drawn from

A’isha Bint Abu Bakr

Chosen wife of Muhammad→ taught about new faith and responded to queries from early community on religious matters

Contributed accounts of Muhammad’s life which became part of official history of Islam→ eventually established patterns of normative behaviour in Islamic society

Not afraid of asking questions→ teaches importance of questioning what adherents don't understand

Prophet died in her lap and she was temporarily involved in politics. Never married after his death

2

The effect of that person OR school of thought on Islam

Spread word of Muhammad and contributed to Hadith recordings→ strengthened Islamic tradition

Role model for Sunni Muslims and women→ promoted women's rights and education

Education amongst Muslim women→ subverted social standards of time

3

Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Islam of ONE significant person OR school of thought, other than Muhammad and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, drawn from:
A’isha Bint Abu Bakar
Analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Islam

HADITH

CONTRIBUTION:
- Responsible for transmitting over 2000 Hadith (greatest contribution to Islam)
- Little education→ but became known for intelligence and memory

IMPACT:
- Informs adherents of prophet’s personal behaviours
- Provides info about different ways of living
- Became source of knowledge and wisdom from transmitting
- Significant→ impossible to understand Qur’an without reference to Hadith (considered 2nd to Qur’an)
- Hadith clarifies, explains and paraphrases Qur’an→ without Aisha much of Hadith wouldn't have been recorded
- Invaluable contribution to Islamic jurisprudence
- She questioned legitimacy of existing Hadith after M died and critiqued how to use Hadith to make legal decisions

4

Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Islam of ONE significant person OR school of thought, other than Muhammad and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, drawn from:
A’isha Bint Abu Bakar
Analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Islam

REJECTS WEALTH

CONTRIBUTION:
- Role model: Rejection of wealth
- Continued to live in poverty after M died

IMPACT:
- When came into wealth→ gave it to poor
- Role model to Muslims faced with choice between faith or wealth (should choose faith)
- Revelation to M to offer wives choice between leaving him and being wealthy or staying with him in poverty→ A chose poverty
- When had money would give it away even if no provisions in house:
- Thought her maid said “couldn't you have bought a dirhams’ worth of meat with which to break your fast?” “If I had thought of it, she replied, I would have done so” → shows her selflessness and willingness to serve others
- Willingness to give up wealth and serve Allah→ role model/ guide for Muslim living.

5

Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Islam of ONE significant person OR school of thought, other than Muhammad and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, drawn from:
A’isha Bint Abu Bakar
Analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Islam

ROLE MODEL TO WOMEN

CONTRIBUTION:
- Promoted women’s education
- Regularly asked to interpret revelations (seen as one of foremost scholars of Islam)
- Took children into her care→ educated them; sit with other women and pass on knowledge received from M

IMPACT:
- Role model for women;
- Demonstrated women could by authority on religion/Islam
- Left house and became political figure→ challenges gender norms of time and for present time
- Broke through restrictions of masculine society and excelled in male dominated world
- Powerful model for women’s scholarship, political engagement and leadership
- Muslim women typically stereotyped as meek; oppressed
- A’s contributions show impact women can have on govt, military, education, religion and law
- Powerful figure to advance human rights towards empowerment in Muslim societies/communities today

6

Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Islam of ONE significant person OR school of thought, other than Muhammad and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, drawn from:
A’isha Bint Abu Bakar
Analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Islam

1st REVELATION: CAMEL

CONTRIBUTION:
- A’s journeys led to revelations in Qur’an
- M returning from battle→ A accompanied him and when stopped was accidently left behind at camp
- Accepted ride back to Mecca with other lost army member who offered her his camel
- Scandalous; rumours circulated; weren’t married

IMPACT:
- M advised to disown Aisha→ but received revelation; Led to Surah 24:4 on adultery
- “And those that accuse honourable women but bring not four witnesses...never accept their testimony.” (SURAH 24:4)
- Highlighted no charge of adultery is valid unless supported by 4 witnesses
- A’s journeys led to new revelations

7

Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Islam of ONE significant person OR school of thought, other than Muhammad and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, drawn from:
A’isha Bint Abu Bakar
Analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Islam

2nd REVELATION: ABLUTION

CONTRIBUTION:
- Next journey leading to revelation: Lost her necklace and prophet and people stayed behind to look for it
- Hours passed and when it came time to pray; no water for ablution

IMPACT:
- Revealed to M that in absence of water; could be performed with fine dust or sand
- Provides adherents with instructions on how to perform ablution without water

2 journeys led to revelations:
- Affair of the slander→ revelation about adultery
- Revelation of ablution→ ritual of cleansing

8

One of the following areas of ethical teachings in Islam
Bioethics

OVERVIEW

Bioethics; ethical issues relating to human biology, health care, biological science

Islamic ethics; related to Tawhid (oneness of Allah)

Expected to obey his commands in Quran and express obedience in behaviour and belief

Greatness of Allah→ humans expected to obey and fulfill his purposes in life; ethical behaviour to others

Bioethics; importance of human life and belief that Allah can only decide issues of life and death

9

One of the following areas of ethical teachings in Islam
Bioethics

EXAMPLE: ABORTION

Allah is only one who can decide life and death

Permitted in some cases; some will allow abortions up to the 120th day of pregnancy (when it is believed soul enters child)

Condemned mainly as life is not in the hands of Allah

Mostly considered wrong as it suggest lack of trust in Allah to provide for child

Emphasis on prevention and treating with respect and compassion; physical concerns not final consideration

Value of life in the Qur’an → “It is Allah who gives you life then gives you death” (SURA

10

One of the following areas of ethical teachings in Islam
Bioethics

EXAMPLE: CONTRACEPTION

Discouraged; interferes with natural process of procreation

Some believe it's appropriate if health concerns for mother/financial hardship

Not allowed when it's performed to avoid birth of female

Some believe practice is sign of no trust in Allah→ preventing pregnancy implies don’t trust in Allah to provide for family

11

One of the following areas of ethical teachings in Islam
Bioethics

EXAMPLE: EUTHANASIA

Not accepted; contradictory to role of Allah as divine planner for human life

Muslims seek patience of Allah to cope with sufferings in life→ trust in Allah and in his purposes are required for Muslims

Voluntary euthanasia (ill person seeking to die) considered suicide and thus condemned in Hadith

“Whoever commits suicide with something will be punished with the same thing in the hell fire.” (BUKHARI 78:647)

Concern for providing palliative care for dying/ experiencing pain rather than euthanasia

12

Describe and explain Islamic ethical teachings on bioethics OR environmental ethics OR sexual ethics

Qur’an outlines laws governing human life→ represents preordained structure of Allah’s commands

Sharia law tells how life is to be lived→ understanding of law is jurisprudence

Ethical principles based on obedience to Allah’s law

Living according to principles/ realise them fully→ essence of jihad (includes struggle against evil tendencies; personal faults and flaws (greed, selfishness, resentment)

13

Describe one significant practice within Islam drawn from:
Hajj

OVERVIEW

Fifth pillar of Islam→ Every devout male has to go once in their life

Means to embark on a journey with purpose; to essentially visit the Ka’ba in Makkah and worship on Mount Arafat

Occurs in 12 month of Muslim calendar
Over a million people gather annually in Saudi Arabia

Certain degree of physical fitness expected

Some are unable to undertake due to poor health, lack of financial means or unexpected or unavoidable circumstances→ in this case; intention suffices (belief Allah judges them on their intentions providing their efforts are sincere)

Some unable to go join in symbolic way; give money to charity or pay for someone else to go

14

Describe one significant practice within Islam drawn from:
Hajj

PHASES OF PILGRIMAGE

Preparation phase occurs outside Makkah (placing themselves in an appropriate attitude: striving towards purity) sign of preparedness; all normal clothing removed and replaced with simple white garments

Immediately on arriving→ go to Ka’ba and circle 7 times

Next event; Sa’y→ procession between Safa and Marwah (7 times) based on Hajar's search for water in the desert

Next; journey to Mina: pebbles thrown at pillars; symbolises rejection of the devil

Camp at Mina then go to plain of Arafat and stand from midday until sunset in meditation , then climb Mount Arafat where sermon preached

Pilgrimage continues to Mina (night prayer)

In Mina- camp for red days while offering animal sacrifice; after this→ men shave heads and women required to cut at least 2.5 cm of hair

Hajj then returns to Makkah for another encircling of Kabah as final event

15

Demonstrate how this practice expresses the beliefs of Islam

TAWHID

Essence of Islam→ surrender to Allah (in undertaking Hajj) → commitment to surrender

Hajj requires sacrifice and commitment

Circling of Ka'ba→ Obedience and submission to will of Allah; sums up essence of Islam and purpose of Hajj

Rituals relate to number of important encounters between Allah and humankind (in ancient times)

Pilgrims seek to imitate submission displayed

16

Demonstrate how this practice expresses the beliefs of Islam

ANGELS

Black Stone of Mecca→ crystal stone Muslims believe came from heaven through Archangel Gabriel

Centrepiece of sacred ritual (tawaf) pilgrims perform in Mecca

Stone is located inside Kaaba, which pilgrims encircle

17

Demonstrate how this practice expresses the beliefs of Islam

HOLY BOOKS

Ritual actions are based on significant moments of encounter with Allah, (mentioned in Qur’an) → Allah forgiving Adam and Eve, provision of water for Hajar in the desert

18

Demonstrate how this practice expresses the beliefs of Islam

PROPHETS

Stoning of Pillars→ rejection of devil and surrender to Allah (pillars represent places where Ibrahim resisted temptation)

Feast of Sacrifice→ Commemorates when Ibrahim was called to sacrifice his son and overcame temptations of the devil; involves ritual sacrifice of animal→ sacrifice symbolises preparedness of Muslims to sacrifice all personal needs and wants in service of Alla

19

Demonstrate how this practice expresses the beliefs of Islam

DAY OF JUDGEMENT

Stand before Allah→ central moment of Hajj; Pilgrims meditate,pray and concentrate their thoughts on Allah (pray from midday to sunset on Mount of Arafat plain) → plain where Adam and Eve sought restoration and forgiveness

20

Demonstrate how this practice expresses the beliefs of Islam

PREDESTINATION

Hajar’s thirst→ Centred on Hajar wandering desert for water (ran between hills) angel appeared danbs showed spring→ Allah came to aid in time of greatest need→ pilgrims travel between hills; symbolises search fro true things and ultimate realisation that Allah will provide all that is needed

21

PRINCIPAL BELIEFS OF ISLAM

- TAWHID
- ANGELS
- HOLY BOOKS
- PROPHETS
- DAY OF JUDGEMENT
- PREDESTINATION

22

Analyse the significance of this practice for both the individual and the Muslim community

(INDIVIDUALS)

One of 5 pillars (requirement for all Muslim males) → foundation to Islam;

Guide Muslim in way of submission the will of Allah (essence of Islam)

Magnitude of preparations highlights its significance for individual (medical, clothing, state of mind, family preparations, food, fitness)

Tests personal resolve and commitment
Rejection of devil and remaining faithful to submission of Allah

Muslim pilgrim experiences coming together with all other Islamic Muslims under Allah

23

Analyse the significance of this practice for both the individual and the Muslim community

(COMMUNITY)

International and multi racial harmony (2 million pilgrims each year)

Important to witness essence of Islam (submission to Allah

Community involved in preparation before pilgrims leave and supporting family

Connection of community; provides additional spiritual and community focus→ strengthen community life

All races and nationalities come together with tolerance and respect in racial harmony; no discrimination→ unifying power of Allah in common submission