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Flashcards in T3: just drogas Deck (119):
1

phenylephrine

a1-agonist
maintain BP during neurogenic shock, hemorrhoids, nasal congestion, supraventricular tachycardia, mydriatic

2

midodrine

a1-agonist
orthostatic hypotension, urinary incontinence

3

cocaine

indirect acting sympathomimetic
inhibits reuptake NE at symp. nerve terminals
local anesthetic, vasoconstriction, reduces epistaxis

4

pseudoephedrine/ephedrine

indirect acting sympathomimetic
stim. rel. of NE from symp. nerve endings and dir. stim. adr. rec.
(pseudoephedrine: tx nasal/bronchial congestion)

5

amphetamine/methamphetamine/
methylphenidate

indirect acting sympathomimetic
stim. catechol. rel. from symp. and central* nerve endings

6

acebutolol (sectral)

B1-blocker
(part. agonist and mem stab) compete reversibly with NE
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

7

atenolol (tenormin)

B1-blocker
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

8

esmolol (brevibloc)

B1-blocker
antiHTN, short duration, use in acute tx
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

9

metoprolol (lopressor, toprol-XL)

B1-blocker
(mem stab?)
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

10

nadolol (corgard)

B1 and B2 blocker
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*, long-duration, chronic
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

11

pindolol

B1 and B2 blocker
(part. agonist and men stab?)
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

12

propranolol (inderal-LA)

B1 and B2 blocker
(mem stab)
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

13

timolol (timoptic)

B1 and B2 blocker
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*
glaucoma: red. IOP by inhib. AH prod. (cil. epi) (little mem. stabilizing effect)
protect against catecholamine and thyroid storm

14

labetalol (trandate)

combo B-blocker PLUS a-blocker
antiHTN (primary) mod-severe, emergency tx of HTN crisis *prevent CV disease*

15

nebivolol

combo B1-blocker/endo-dep vasodilator
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease* (prod. NO from endothelium)

16

carvedilol

combo B1-blocker/a-blocker/antioxidant
heart failure

17

sotalol

combo B-blocker/K+channel blocker
arrythmias

18

phenoxybenzamine (dibenzyline)

non-selective a1 and a2 blocker
antiHTN, long-acting, pheochromocytoma pre-op/inop
*only a-blocker that is non-competitive, irreversible*

19

phentolamine (oraVerse)

non-selective a1 and a2 blocker
antiHTN, short-acting, "Phentolamine test": dx pheos, use DURING pheo surg., NE OD, prev. local dermal tissue necrosis from NE
oraVerse reverses local anesthesia constriction

20

prazosin (minipress)

selective a1 blocker
antiHTN, long-term mild-mod, CV disease prevention, BPH relief, Raynaud's, PTSD nightmares

21

terazosin (hytrin)

selective a1 blocker
antiHTN (BPH) *prevent CV disease*

22

doxazosin (cardura)

selective a1 blocker
antiHTN, (BPH), CV disease prevention

23

tamsulosin (flomax)

selective a1 blocker (a1A subtype)
BPH

24

alfuzosin (uroxatral)

selective a1 blocker ("uroselectivity")
BPH

25

silodosin (rapaflo)

selective a1 blocker (a1A subtype)
BPH

26

reserpine

sympathetic neuronal blocker, peripherally-acting
antiHTN, *CV disease prevention*
dec. uptake of DA and NE into storage vesicles-->dec. available NE to rec.-->dec. CO and TPR
CNS effects, *irrev.

27

guanethidine

sympathetic neuronal blocker, peripherally-acting
antiHTN (not used anymore)
dec. uptake of DA & NE into storage vesicles-->dec. available NE to rec.-->dec. CO and TPR
also directly blocks NE release from nerve endings
(interactions w/ tricyc. antideps: imipramine, desipramine)

28

methyldopa

sympathetic neuronal blocker, centrally-acting, prodrug
(actually a2-rec agonist! (neg FDBK))
antiHTN, esp. during pregnancy, *CV disease prevention*

*all centrally acting adr. blockers: stim. a2 adr. rec in brain (neg fdbk)-->indir. red SNA from CNS(vasomotor center)-->peripheral CV organs

29

clonidine (catapres)

sympathetic neuronal blocker, centrally-acting
(actually a2-rec agonist! (neg FDBK))
tx primary HTN, ADHD, hot flashes, PTSD, withdrawal (etOH, nicotine, morphine), analgesic into spinal cord
*CV disease prevention* can use patch for smooth BP control, more rebound HTN than methyldopa

30

guanabenz

sympathetic neuronal blocker, centrally-acting
(actually a2-rec agonist! (neg FDBK))
antiHTN, lowers cholesterol

31

guanfacine

sympathetic neuronal blocker, centrally-acting
(actually a2-rec agonist! (neg FDBK))
antiHTN, ADHD (intuniv)

32

aproclonidine

sympathetic neuronal blocker, centrally-acting
(actually a2-rec agonist! (neg FDBK))
lower post-surg. IOP (inc. a2 agonist in eye)

33

brimonidine

sympathetic neuronal blocker (a2 agonist)
lower IOP in glaucoma

34

nicotine

ganglionic stimulant (blocks at high doses)
nicotine addiction tx

35

mecamylamine

ganglionic blocker (pre-post nicotinic neural) *discontinued*
tx severe HTN, Tourette's, nicotine addiction tx
(trimethaphan, hexametonium also discontinued)

36

epinephrine

adrenergic bronchodilator
*B agonists also stabilize mast cells, inhib. degranulation/rel. of autocoids
tx for acute/life-threatening asthma (B2 typically) (epi. inc. cardiac performance)
BLACK BOX FOR ALL ADR. BRONCHODILATORS: may cause death in asthmatic pts (CNS: seizures; heart: palpitations)

37

isoproterenol

adrenergic bronchodilator

38

metaproterenol (alupent)

adrenergic bronchodilator

39

albuterol (ventolin)

adrenergic bronchodilator

40

levalbuterol (xopenex)

adrenergic bronchodilator

41

salmeterol (serevent)

adrenergic bronchodilator
*long acting, not acute tx

42

terbutaline (brethine)

adrenergic bronchodilator

43

pirbuterol (maxair)

adrenergic bronchodilator

44

theophylline (theodur)

methylxanthine bronchodilators
severe asthma
also stabilize mast cells, inhib. phosphodiesterase-->inc. cAMP in smooth musc/mast cells
interact w/ adenosine rec
*narrow tx window*

45

aminophylline

methylxanthine bronchodilators
severe asthma
also stabilize mast cells, inhib. phosphodiesterase-->inc. cAMP in smooth musc/mast cells
interact w/ adenosine rec
*narrow tx window*

46

beclomethasone (QVAR, Vanceril)

corticosteroids

47

flunisolide (aerobid)

corticosteroids

48

triamcinolone (azmacort, nasocort)

corticosteroids

49

fluticasone (flovent, flonase)

corticosteroids
(fluticasone + vilanterol = breo ellipta inhaler : COPD)

50

budesonide (pulmicort, rhinocort)

corticosteroids

51

prednisone (oral)

corticosteroids
allergic rxns, asthma (ppx, not nec. acute) (red. sev, shorten duration of attacks); v. severe allergies
inhaled forms (vs. systemic) red. toxicity
*corticosteroids primarily anti-inflammatory, inhib. autocoid syn., red. cell-mediated immunological damage; secondarily stabilize mast cells

52

mometasone (asmanex, nasonex)

corticosteroids

53

methylprednisonlone (oral)

corticosteroids

54

cromolyn sodium

mast cell stabilizer
inhib. rel. of histamine/other autocoids from sens. mast cells
ppx, not acute; use w/ other agents
asthma, allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, GI allergies

55

monteleukast (singulair)

leukotriene modulator
blocks leukotriene rec (CysLT 1 and 2)
aspirin-sensitive asthma, dec. freq and sev.
*seasonal allergies*

56

zafirleukast (accolate)

leukotriene modulator
blocks leukotriene rec (CysLT 1 and 2)
aspirin-sensitive asthma, dec. freq and sev.

57

zileuton (zyflo)

leukotriene modulator
inhibits lipooxygenase enzyme, dec. leukotriene formation
aspirin-sensitive asthma, dec. freq and sev. (QID)

58

ipratropium (atrovent)

antimuscarinic
prevent acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm
quaternary, few syst. effects

59

tiotropium (spiriva)

antimuscarinic
prevent acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm
COPD

60

aclidinium (tudorza)

antimuscarinic
prevent acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm
COPD

61

advair diskus

(salmeterol/fluticasone)
combo product for asthma

62

combivent

(ipratroium/albuterol)
combo product for asthma

63

symbicort

(formoterol/budesonide)
combo product for asthma

64

dulera

(formoterol/mometasone)
combo product for asthma

65

omalizumab (xolair)

immunomodulator (anti-IgE), MoAb
asthma
give IV, inj.

66

diphenhydramine (benadryl)

H1 histamine antagonist
tx allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis NOT asthma/anaphylaxis; dec. severity of symptoms

67

fexofenadine (allegra)

H1 histamine antagonist
tx allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis NOT asthma/anaphylaxis; dec. severity of symptoms

68

cetirizine (zyrtec)

H1 histamine antagonist
tx allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis NOT asthma/anaphylaxis; dec. severity of symptoms

69

loratidine (claritin, alavert)

H1 histamine antagonist
tx allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis NOT asthma/anaphylaxis; dec. severity of symptoms

70

hydrochlorothiazide (microzide)

diuretic (thiazide)
works at distal convoluted tubule, prev. reabsorp. NaCl
antiHTN, prevent CV disease

71

furosemide (lasix)

diuretic (loop)- most powerful!
works at thick asc. limb of loop of Henle, prev. reabsorb. Na and Cl
antiHTN, prevent CV disease

72

spironolactone (aldactone)

diuretic
K+ sparing, works at collecting duct
antiHTN, prevent CV disease

73

verapamil (calan)

Ca2+ channel blocker
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease* (works in heart)

74

nifedipine (procardia-XL)

Ca2+ channel blocker
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease* (works @ arts)

75

captopril (capoten)

ACE inhibitor
prev. conversion of AngI-->AngII
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*

76

losartan (cozaar)

Angiotensin II rec blocker (ARBs)
works AFTER AngII produced; blocks binding
antiHTN, *prevent CV disease*

77

lovastatin (mevacor)

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
tx for hyperlipoproteinemia (reduce cholesterol), prevent CV disease

78

levothryoxine (synthroid)

synthetic T4
tx for hypothyroidism
(2nd most prescribed drug in US)

79

131-Iodine

tx hyperthyroidism
kills thyroid cells, need other hyperthyroid drugs to make pt EUTHYROID before 131-I, also for thyroid Ca
not for nursing moms

80

propylthiouracil (PTU)

thionamide
tx hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm
inhibit steps 3 (iodination) and 4 (coupling of iodotyrosines)
*do not inhibit release of T4/T3*
**also inhibits deiodinase (T4-->T3), better for more severe cases**
better for pregnant pts

81

KI (Potassium Iodide, Lugol's solution)

iodine
tx hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm
inhibits synthesis AND release of pre-formed/stored hormone, temporary, used w/ thionamides (1st) (thy. storm)
then propranolol, glucocorticoids, antipyretics (NOT ASA)

82

alendronate (fosomax)

amino substituted bisphosphonate
more potent, longer acting
osteoporosis, Paget's disease
incorp. into bone-inhib pyrophosphates in osteoclasts-slow bone turnover

83

risedronate (actonel)

pyridinal bisphosphonate
osteoporosis, Paget's disease
incorp. into bone-inhib pyrophosphates in osteoclasts-slow bone turnover (binds hydroxyapatite in bone)

84

ibandronate (boniva)

bisphosphonate (1x/month)
osteoporosis, hypercalcemia (malignancy)
incorp. into bone-inhib pyrophosphates in osteoclasts-slow bone turnover

85

zoledronic acid (relclast, zometa)

bisphosphonate (take 1x/year!)
reclast: osteoporosis, Paget's disease
zometa: hypercalcemia (malignancy)
incorp. into bone-inhib pyrophosphates in osteoclasts-slow bone turnover

86

raloxifene (evista)

selective ESTROGEN receptor modulator (SERM)
osteoporosis (postmenopausal)
dec. osteoclast activity AND inc. osteoblast activity
(less breast ca, HD risk then general estrogen) (agonist in bone, antag in breast/uterus)

87

calcitriol (rocaltrol)

1,25 hydroxyvitamin D
inc. dietary Ca2+ absorp. in GI, promotes osteoblast act.
osteoporosis, (hypoparathyroidism)

88

calcitonin (calcimar)

from parafollicular C cells, lowers serum Ca2+ (inhib. osteolysis), decreases osteoclast activity
hypercalcemia, Paget's disease (bone), 2nd line for postmen. osteoporosis

89

methimazole (tapazole)

thionamide
tx hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm
inhibit steps 3 (iodination) and 4 (coupling of iodotyrosines)
*do not inhibit release of T4/T3*

90

T3 or 3,5,3'-triidothyronine (cytomel)

tx for hypothyroidism
very potent
rarely used except in sev. situations (in conjunction w/ levothyroxine)

91

desiccated animal thyroid (armour thyroid)

tx for hypothyroidism
combo T3, T4; not 1st choice, use if don't respond to levothyroxine
weight loss products OTC

92

liotrix (euthroid)

tx for hypothyroidism
4:1 mixture T4:T3, expensive, rarely used

93

aspirin, ibuprofin, NSAIDs, etc

inhib. PG syn (COX-1 and COX-2)
act at nerve endings in CNS
anti-inflammatory effects

94

acetaminophen

inhibs. PG syn in nerve endings and CNS, not periphery
no antiinflammatory action

95

ketorolac (toradol)

injectable NSAID
alt. to opioid for short-term pain

96

celocoxib

selective COX-2 inhib (rofecoxib, valdecoxib no longer on the market)

97

local anesthetics (lidocaine)

block sodium channels in nerve endings and axons and stop gen/cond of APs

98

opioids

agonists at rec. for endorphins and enkephalins
act in limbic system
can act in SC to inhibit pain transmission

99

morphine

u agonist opioid analgesic
severe pain

100

codeine

u agonist opioid analgesic
moderate pain

101

fentanyl (sublimaze)

u agonist opioid analgesic
severe pain

102

heroin

u agonist opioid analgesic
schedule 1: do not prescribe (no shit)

103

hydrocodone (vicodin, lortab)

u agonist opioid analgesic
moderate pain

104

hydromorphone (dilaudid)

u agonist opioid analgesic
severe pain

105

meperidine (demerol)

u agonist opioid analgesic
*controversial!*

106

methadone (dolophine)

u agonist opioid analgesic
*controversial!*
severe pain
tx heroin addiction

107

oxycodone (percodan, percocet, oxycontin)

u agonist opioid analgesic
*controversial!*
severe pain

108

pentazocine (talwin)

partial/mixed agonist/antagonist opioid analgesic

109

buprenorphine (buprenex, subutrex, suboxone)

partial/mixed agonist/antagonist opioid analgesic

110

tramadol (ultram)

partial/mixed agonist/antagonist opioid analgesic
*controversial!*
moderate pain

111

vicodin

5 mg hydrocodone + 500 mg acetaminophen
*be careful w/ combos, may OD*

112

amitriptyline

antidepressant, tx for chronic pain w. opioids, neurogenic pain

113

carbamazepine

anticonvulsant, tx for neurogenic pain

114

gabapentin (neurontin)

anticonvulsant, tx for neurogenic pain

115

pregabalin (lyrica)

anticonvulsant, tx for neurogenic pain

116

ciclesonide (alvesco, omnaris)

corticosteroid

117

norepinephrine

antidote for too much ganglionic block: CV support for neurogenic shock

118

pamidronate (aredia)

amino substituted bisphosphonate
hypercalcemia of malignancy, Paget's disease (occas.)

119

zoledronate (zometa)

new bisphosphonate
hypercalcemia