T6 Organic Chem Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in T6 Organic Chem Deck (107)
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1

hydrocarbons

compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

2

saturated

containing only single bonds

3

unsaturated

containing one or more multiple bonds

4

displayed formula

shows every atom and bond separately

5

structural formula

all atoms joined to a singular carbon are grouped

6

skeletal formula

only shows bonds between carbon atoms

7

molecular formula

shows numbers of each atom, not structure

8

empirical formula

molecular formula with each atom in its simplest whole-number ratio

9

functional group

an atom or group of atoms in a molecule that is responsible for its chemical reactions.

10

homologous series

family of compounds with the same functional group, differing by CH2.
they have similar chemical/physical properties displaying gradation.

11

alkane general formula

CnH2n+2

12

alkene general formula

CnH2n

13

halogenoalkane general formula

CnH2n+1X

14

alcohol general formula

CnH2n+1OH

15

structural isomers

compounds with the same molecular formula but differing structural formula

16

chain isomers

structural isomers with different carbon chains.
similar chemical properties but different physical.

17

position isomers

molecules with the same functional group attached in a different position on the same carbon chain
different physical/chemical properties

18

stereoisomerism

compounds with the same structural formula but with the atoms/groups arranged differently in 3 dimensions.

19

geometric isomers

compounds containing a CC double bond with atoms or groups attached at different positions.

20

bond angles shown on geometric isomers

at 120 degrees

21

trans

when the 2 Carbon groups are on opposite sides to one another.

22

cis

when the 2 carbon groups are on the same side to one another.

23

why do geometric isomers only occur at double bonds?

because the CC double bond presence restricts rotation so groups attached can't move around

24

process of E/Z notation

1.) work out names of both isomers
2.) use priority rules as to which of 2 atoms on left of C=C has the higher priority (higher having a greater atomic number)
3.) copy on the right
4.) are they in the cis or trans positions?

25

E notation

equivalent of trans notation for non-carbons

26

Z notation

equivalent of cis notation for non-carbons

27

3 main processes used to convert crude oil into fuels

cracking
reforming
fractional distillation

28

fractional distillation

crude oil heated in furnace and passed into fractionating column in which there's a temp gradient (hot at bottom and cooler at top), passing through column via a series of bubble caps, condensing at different heights, depending on bp.
larger molecules at bottom and smaller at top

29

cracking

hydrocarbons are passed over a heated catalyst (e.g zeolite/ aluminium oxide) causing them to break down.

30

why does reforming take place

as straight chains burn less efficiently than cyclic compounds so reforming occurs to convert straight chains into cyclic compounds