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ALACTACID SYSTEM info and fuel

90% MHR anaerobic - the ATP-PC system consists of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PC). This provides immediate energy through the breakdown of these stored high energy phosphates.


LACTIC ACID SYSTEM info and fuel

80-90% MHR Anaerobic - furled by carbohydrates of glucose in the blood and glycogen in muscles. Relies on anaerobic glycolysis (breakdown of glucose to produce ATP) for production of ATP



60-80% MHR Aerobic - fuelled by carbohydrates stored in muscle/liver as glycogen and fats and proteins.



Energy systems allow for energy to provide to muscles, resulting in movement. This energy is in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which converts from chemical to mechanical (movement) energy.


ATP/PC System
1. Efficiency of ATP production
2. Duration system can operate
3. Cause of Fatigue
4. By-products
5. Process/rate of recovery
6. Examples

1. Very fast production, limited store of fuel
2. 10-12 seconds
3. Depletion of creatine phosphate, requiring recovery once ATP stores run out
4. Heat
5. Replenishment of creatine in cells connecting to phosphates, to be used as PC (full recovery in 2min)
6. 100m sprint, discus


1. Efficiency of ATP production
2. Duration system can operate
3. Cause of Fatigue
4. By-products
5. Process/rate of recovery
6. Examples

1. Within 1 sec - rapid production
2. 10-30 seconds at a high intensity, can go up to 3 minutes depending on intensity
3. Accumulation of lactic acid
4. Lactic acid (pyruvic acid and hydrogen ion)
5. 30 min - 2 hours, active recovery
6. 200m sprint, 400m sprint


Aerobic System
1. Efficiency of ATP production
2. Duration system can operate
3. Cause of Fatigue
4. By-products
5. Process/rate of recovery
6. Examples

1. Slow production, endless supply
2. Endless supply at low to moderate intensity
3. Depletion of glycogen and fat
4. Water and Carbon Dioxide
5. Up to 48 hours, depending on the level of depletion
6. Marathon, triathlon


Types of training

1. Aerobic
2. Anaerobic
3. Flexibility
4. Strength


Training methods

1. Aerobic = continuous, fartlek, aerobic interval, circuit
2. Anaerobic = anaerobic interval
3. Flexibility = static, ballistic, PNF, dynamic
4. Strength training = free/fixed weights, elastic, hydraulic


Aerobic training

training focused on developing cardiorespiratory endurance, predominantly using the aerobic energy system – focuses on the ability for the athlete to absorb, transport and use oxygen for energy production.

- continuous
- fartlek
- aerobic interval
- circuit



- long duration 65-70% at least 20min
- e.g. jogging, swimming, cycling
- Can go as high as 80-90% MHR



- intensity changes between 60-80% MHR, no rest
- uses aerobic and anaerobic system
- e.g. hill and stair sprints, different terrains


Aerobic interval

- timed aerobic activity 60-80% MHR, with rest – good for different positions in sport – generally higher intensity because of breaks
- allows athlete to exercise for longer period at high intensity
- minimises injury due to less rest



- interval training with little to no rest
- greater improvements in endurance/strength
- 2 types = fixed resistance (fixed time per exercise) and individual resistance (weights and reps can change for certain duration).


Anaerobic training

training done ‘without oxygen’, using the anaerobic energy systems – focuses on strength, power, speed, lactate removal and muscular endurance).

- anaerobic interval


Flexibility training

the range of movement/motion at your joints and the body’s ability to move freely, it helps to prevent soft tissue injury, and can in some cases strengthen the muscle when applied with isometrics.

Allows for
- preventing soreness and injury
- muscles to stretch
- improved coordination of muscle groups
- posture and stress on joints

- static
- ballistic
- dynamic



- stretching a muscle to a length that is uncomfortable, not pianful for a set period of time
- 15-30 sec – most is 30-60sec
- warm ups and cool downs
- e.g. gymnastics, acrobatics, body building



- stretching involving a bounce or swing, often using body force to stretch further than normal ROM
- risk of injury, overriding the stretch reflex
- can cause macro or micro tears
- most suited for sports requiring bouncing or swinging movements e.g. gymnastics, skipping, dance


PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular Facilitation)

- lengthening a muscle against resistance
- incorporates static stretching through using isometric contractions and periods of rest i.e. stretching hamstring up for 30 sec, then isometric contraction of heel against object, then holding stretch again.
- used in rehab
- muscle is stronger when antagonist is isometrically contracted immediately before
- suited to sports where a joint may be forcefully be taken beyond normal ROM e.g. rugby, American football



- movements taking joints through ROM to produce stretches within specific muscles
- controlled movement, guided by the stretch reflex
- does not force muscle past natural ROM
- imitates movement used in sports
- suited for sports replicating movement used in performance e.g. soccer, rugby, martial arts


Strength training

Any training done to improve overall strength. Strength training affects performance through hypertrophy (growth in myocyte cross-section of muscle) and causes large amounts of stress on the body due to minor tears in the muscle. *sets, reps, resistance and rest

3 major types of muscle actions related to strength training:
- Isotonic – muscle length changes when lifting a constant resistance through a full range of motion (concentric = shortens/against gravity, eccentric = lengths/with gravity)
- Isometric – muscle develops tension but does not change length
- Isokinetic – constant pressure on the muscles (resistance does not change throughout the entire movement)

3 types of strength training focuses
• Absolute strength – maximum force that can be generated by a muscle
• Power – ability to exert force in a short period of time
• Endurance – ability of muscles to repeat muscular contractions against resistance

- Free/fixed weights
- hydraulics
- elastic


Principles of training

Principles of training guide trainers in selecting appropriate types and methods in creating sessions that improve performance – helping to ensure the athlete is reaching optimal performance.

1. Progressive overload
2. Specificity
3. Reversibility
4. Variety
5. training thresholds
6. warm up and cool down


Progressive overload

- when the workload of a session progressively increases and adapts to training
- too much = fatigue/injury
- not enough = plateau in performance



- adaptations to training are specific
- Training must be specific to muscle groups, energy systems, fitness components and skills of athletes
- involves physiological adaptations only occurring in response to stress placed on body and only sections that experience stress.
- E.g. weight lifter using ATP/PC system will train to improve anaerobically



- when training stops, adaptations are lost – at a similar rate to when they are gained
- during injury, athletes are required to moderate exercises to suit needs
- avoided by maintaining same level of training during off-season
- applies to all aspects of training i.e. aerobic/anaerobic fitness, strength, endurance, power and flexibility.



- Ensuring sessions use a range of methods and exercises
- allows for prevention of boredom, loss of motivation, reducing chance of injury and a full development of fitness
- ensures athlete is on track for goals and challenged


Training thresholds

- level of intensity needed to stress body enough to cause an adaptation or improvement in performance
- thresholds are measured by intensity and can be either a %MHR or %VO2 max
- comprises of aerobic and anaerobic threshold
- Minimum exercise efforts needed to improve fitness.
- Aerobic threshold = 60 – 80% MHR. Anaerobic Threshold = 80 – 100% MHR.
- Aerobic training threshold: improvement in body’s ability to use oxygen during physical activity
- Anaerobic training threshold: maximum speed/effort an athlete can maintain and still have no increase in lactic acid


Warm up and cool down

Warm up: first phase of training
- increases body/muscle temperature to prevent injury
- stimulates cardiovascular system, increasing oxygen to muscles
- Mental preparation for training/games

Cool down: end of training
- returns body temperature to normal, through decrease of intensity and stretch of muscles
- dispersion of lactic acid accumulation in muscles


Progressive overload applied to aerobic/resistance training

- requires workload increase in either speed/duration
- decrease rest in interval training
- 65-80% MHR (if it is too low, there is not enough stress – no improvements, if it is too high chance of sacrificing time)
- E.g. someone aiming to run 10km would increase distance gradually and then to decrease time by increasing intensity.

- requires workload increase through: weights, reps or sets
- Muscles must be overloaded for training improvement. Overload can be a decrease in rest, increasing weight, increasing sets or increasing reps. E.g. someone squatting 70kg for 3 reps, will increase to 4 reps.
- best used by increasing the resistance through increasing weight – bettering strength and developing recovery times/muscular endurance


Specificity applied to aerobic/resistance training

- aerobic training specific to the sport environment and target muscles used in sport.
- training done at a pace and in an environment replicating competition to achieve specific gains or adaptations for performance.
- Fartlek; team sports in particular
- continuous; endurance sports
- long interval; e.g. 5km runner uses specificity to work closer to the anaerobic threshold and allows body to disperse lactic acid more efficiently.
- circuit; least effective for aerobic adaptations, good for muscular endurance – increases lean body mass.

- requires that specific muscle groups used in the sport are the ones trained
- replicates movements in sport at similar speed
- must be specific to energy system and sport

- Absolute strength = heavy weight, low reps, low sets, long rest
- Power = medium weight, low reps, low sets, long rest
- Endurance = light weight, high reps, high set, short rest