Flashcards in Tax Deck (14):
Economic income equation:
Economic income = PV (future premiums) - PV(future losses)
What is the discount rate to be used in tax calculated
For each AY, the discount rate is the 60mnth moving average of the "federal mid-term rates", ending Dec 1 of the prior AY
Reason that tax calculations use Schedule P Part 1, instead of Part 3:
-Part 3 contains only DCC, not AAO. Part 1 contains all LAE.
-Part 1 is audited, whereas Part 3 is not.
-Some actuarial methods rely on judgment to select paid LDFs. The IRS method does not involve judgment.
Portion of Tax exempt income that is taxed due to proration provision:
Due to the DRD, what portion of dividends are tax exempt:
-if the taxpayer owns less than 20% of the firm, 70%
-if the taxpayer owns between 20 & 80%, 80%
-if the taxpayer owns more than 80%, 100%
Equations to derive RTI from incurred losses according to direct & indirect
Direct: Paid loss + change in discounted reserves
Indirect: Statutory incurred loss - change in reserve discount.
Equations to derive RTI from bond income according to direct & indirect methods.
Direct: 15% municipal bond income
Indirect: Statutory income - 85% x municipal bond income
Equations to derive RTI from dividends according to direct & indirect methods.
Direct: 40.5% of unaffiliated common stock dividends
Indirect: Statutory income - 59.5% of dividends
Equations to derive RTI from revenue oset according to direct & indirect methods.
Direct: WP - 80% Change in UEPR
Indirect: Statutory EP + 20% x Change in UEPR
AMTI = RTI + 0.75 x Income that escapes taxation
ARIT = RIT - prior year's minimum tax credit
Factors that management need to consider when deciding portions of stocks versus bonds to hold:
-relative tax rates
-asset liability management
-Management dislike of erratic income
Reasons municipal bonds often provide a higher after tax yield than corporate bonds of similar risk levels:
-Callability: most municipal bonds are callable
-Liquidity: Municipal bonds are less liquid.
-Tax legislation: The proration provision reduced the tax advantage of municipal bonds